Sunday, January 26, 2020

Contribution Of Women In Handicrafts In Lahore Cultural Studies Essay

Contribution Of Women In Handicrafts In Lahore Cultural Studies Essay The present study is about the contribution of women in handicrafts. The current theme of research regarding handicrafts is to find out the type of embroidery work that women do in their houses and also the problems and benefits they get from their skills. While there is a lot of research are presented on this topic but there is a lack of attention on those women and their contribution in handicrafts (embroidery). This study would add a knowledge and information to the existing one. Moreover in Pakistan this work is impossible without womens contribution. So, it would also help us to understand the women problems regarding their works. Handicrafts Handicrafts are items made by hand, often with the use of tools, and are generally artistic and traditional in nature. They include objects of utility and objects of decoration. (Geographical Indications of Goods Act, 1999). Handicrafts are the things that are produce completely by hand or with the help of tool. They also known as craft work in which useful and decorative things are used to complete it. Generally the term is used to traditional way of making things. Handicrafts are unique ideas that represent a culture and tradition of a country and it is most important in terms of economic development. Handicrafts are the mirror of culture, tradition and the beauty of this work is depend upon the aesthetic sense of the workers and also on the quality of material and touch of art.   Pakistan has a rich history of handicrafts. The greate workers of Pakistan have greate skills to show their care in craftsmanship and Pakistani culture promises everything beauty,dignity,form and style. (Shaukat, 2006) Handicrafts are as most important symbol in terms of economic development.For the long time period home based work has helped men and women both an economically.In now a days this market get progress and became internationalized but men get more benefits then women due to that freedom that they have to move anywere in profitable areas and the adaptation of these workers into unorganized sector have made women more insecure and lead them to the explotation of their recentl. (Gyanendra Dastidar, 2000) The facts is that more wealthy countries have less informal economy but developing countries more expansive one. Denmark has 18 per cent, Nigeria and Thailand 80 per cent informal economy and there is nothing insulting to admit the fact that Pakistan has an informal economy of about 70 per cent. (Bhatti, 2002) Types of handicrafts Handicrafts involve the different types of creation including clothing, religious symbols and jewelry, and different types of paper crafts. (Malcolm Tatum, 2003) There are hundreds if not thousands of different varieties of handicrafts. The following list of crafts is included just for descriptive purposes. The Handicrafts manifested through Brass, onyx and wood, are known to maintain a proud tradition of handicrafts since 1994 in Pakistan and truly signifying the worth of the products. The art of carving on Metal Wood items are the real beauties of our hard working Craftsmen. These items are manufactured in small villages by hardwork craftsman, and can easily be purchased in big cities. Such crafts include, metal lanterns, mirror frames, decoration pieces and more.    (Shaukat, 2006) 3. Pottery  Ã‚   The potter at his wheel is a common scene in every village, uninfluenced by modern glamour. Bahawalpur, Rawalpindi, Gujrat and places around also produce colorful pottery, painted after firing. pottery of Multan is welknown from dates back to the 13th century with obvious traces for woodwork. Chiniot is also known for woodwork. Copper and brass work is done within the walled city of Lahore. Ceramics and glazed pottery are the oldest art in Pakistan, dating back to the Indus Valley Civilization (2500 B.C.E.). Many popular techniques are used to dercorate the pottery and popular technique is to apply blue designs over white glazes.   Pakistani potters are welknown for making the elaborate tiles that decorate mosques and public buildings. (Shaukat, 2006) 4. Woodcrafts Wood-carving, Woosd-turning, Cabinet making, Furniture making, lacquerware include in woodcrafts. Pakistani furniture is known all over the world for its beautiful designs and the asthetic sense of the worker. One of the fine longitudinal cross grains solid wood is known as Rosewood. It is available in the northern areas of Pakistan. In Asia this wood is only available in Pakistan. In local language people calls it SHESHAM. It is also available along the lakes and rivers in Punjab province of Pakistan. Such furniture is famous all over the world for its beauty. (Shaukat, 2006) 5. Jewelry Leather goods Metalwork, including inlaid or engraved swords, boxes, dishes, and tea sets made from silver and gold, as well as jewelry with precious stones and pearls, are important crafts. Jewelry is not limited to necklaces, bracelets, rings but also includes hair and forehead decorations and nose ornaments. Leatherwork and basketry are also important crafts. Sindh baskets are colorful and intricate, while weavers in the Northwest Frontier prefer geometric patterns. (Shaukat, 2006) Embroidersy Embroidery is the art or handicraft of decorating cloth or other materials with needle and thread or wool.Workers also enhance its beauty with uses of other materials such as metal strips, pearls, beads, quills, and sequins. Embroidery is an ancient textile art which uses strands of embroidery floss or wool to create a picture in thread on canvas, linen or other cloth. It forms a part of needlework. Embroidery uses various stitches and combinations of stitches. Each embroidery stitch has a special name to help identify it. Embroidery has recognized as a creative expression of people and it is storage of our oral traditions which have been maintained by the women. (Dhamija, 2004) Embroidered textiles are frequently used to decorate living spaces, temporary or permanent, impressive or modest depend upon choise and the sense of owner. Historically, embroidered textiles shows the wealthy and influence touch of rulers, courtiers, and courtesans. Among South Asias many peoples are identified by this textiles frequently, personal status or religious affiliation. (Dale Carolyn Gluckman, 2007) The folk embroidery tradition runs deep in the Punjab. At the end of the 15th century, the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak, wrote: Thou art not a worthwhile woman until thou hast embroidered thy own blouse. Village women still practice the craft, also stitching bed and cushion covers and a variety of other cloths, but the art probably reached its peak in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. (Beste, Michael, 2009) Types of embroidery There are many different styles of embroidery, often with regional variations. Chikan embroidery Chikan embroidery is a fine needle-craft done by hand mostly using white thread on a variety of fabrics from cotton and silk to synthetics. It is the most famous fine art of embroidery at word level, and is famous not only in India, but also abroad. (Sarna Shukla, 1994) Zari embroideries From the second half of 18th century until the early 20th century, two different types of gold embroidery found ready patrons; these were: zardozi work, heavy silver-gilt thread work upon a foundation padded with cotton thread or paper, on velvet or sation ground; and Kalabattu work: light delicate embroidery, in gilt-silver or silver threads, strips of gilt-silver, gilt-silver sequins, upon fine silk cotton or muslin. (Dhamija, 2004) White work White work is embroidered in white thread, on pure white fabric, it is not at all difficult, and is cheap to achieve. The tools you will need for white work embroidery are minimal. Firstly, a nice piece of fabric. Depending on the kind of item you wish to produce, you may start out with high thread count white muslin, or an even weave or linen. Appliquà © work Appliquà © work is every kind of embroidery which, being worked solidly on one material is then cut out and lay down upon another, and secured by various ornamental stitches. (Dhamija, 2004) China work This work was almost entirely Chinese in design and techniques. It was done on saries, shawls, borders, children dresses and a variety of costumes. The fabric used was mainly chines silk or fine satin of red, purple and black colour. The embroidery was done sometimes with floss-silk and more often with tightly spun, two ply silk. (Dhamija, 2004) Phulkari The simple and sparsely embroided work for everyday use was called phulkari. It was done on odhnis or shawls for everyday use on coarse handspun khadi cloth, mostly brownish-red, usng floss-silk in darning stitched worked from the reverse side of fabric. (Dhamija, 2004) Kashmir embroidery The main varieties of Kashmir being namda, work on felt-wool, gabba, a type of appliquà © work, using waste woolen fabrics and kashida wrought on various kinds of clothing and the cloth used is either silk or wool. (Dhamija, 2004) Role of women in handicrafts Home based workers are the most marginalized and one of the largest groups of workers in this sector, with an estimated 300 million workers worldwide. Home based work has been identified as work that is undertaken in the home. They are predominately women, located in various occupations including the assembly of electronic components of fans, washing machines, irons, or the manufacture of glass bangles, items of pottery; small scale packaging and assembling of consumables, hand knitting, embroidery, stitching, handicrafts, garments and weaving of carpets and shawls. It also includes clerical and teaching homework and the supply of raw materials. (Carr, Chen Tate, 2000) According to World Bank report after agriculture, the most important source of womens employment is home-based work. (Aurat publication, 1997) The statistics on the informal economy are unreliable, The number of women in the informal labour force possibly stands at 12.79 millions, of whom 8.52 million women, constituting 75 per cent of the total informal sector workers, were home-based workers.'(Aurat publication, 1997) A survey of the Pakistan Institute of Development Economics (PIDE) conducted in 2003 shows that 77 percent of the total female labor force falls within the purview of the informal sector, while 53 percent are classified as home based workers. They also told that most of working women have to hand over their earnings to their parents or husbands. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries women produced and consumed the crafts for the domestic interior. They made crafts at various levels in society and having different motives. At one level, it may have been artistic self-expression; at another level to support financial necessity, or on a third level it may have been for pastime. (Edward, 2006) Informal Economy comprises of small enterprises of one or more persons, with casual or regular employees of less than 10 people. The workers in this sector fall into the following three categories: Self-employed women Home-based workers Self-employed women A woman who is self-employed works for herself instead of as an employee of another person or organization, drawing income from a trade or business. Self-employed workers are paid directly by clients or by their business, and some proportion of these payments will be due to the government as income tax. (Haq, 2003) Home-based workers Home based women workers fall into two categories: (i) dependent workers who work on a piece rate and usually work for middle persons in a contract chain; and (ii) independent home based workers or own-account workers who produce goods for direct sale through street stalls, shops or the local village and sometimes to traders or subcontractors. (Haq, 2003) In the last ten years women have become more energetic in business and the private sector. Their participation found in many areas, in which small scale projects as well as large scale private projects are included. Small scale rural projects turns into larg scale private projects. There are a lot of networks which have been established for the women in business. It also empowers the women of a home-base producer or in private sector. (Brouwer, Harris Tanaka, 1998) The unplanned home-based workers represent an important part of working population. There are large number of income producing activities are included in home-based sector in which mostly women workers are engaged. From embroidery to food processing and from craft to coir work are included in these activities. Both in rural and urban areas, there is given very little importance to this unorganized sector and it is due to the workers condition; the working conditions are unspeakable, the wages are extremely low and workers face great worries and exploitations. Home based industrial work is one of the least regulated, least managed, and most risky systems of industrial production however a large number of women workers are tired in this sector just because of lack of personal resources, like education and awareness, non-availability of employment opportunities, and normative practices which control womens mobility outside home. (Sarna Shukla, 1994) Liberalisation has improved the employment opportunities for women in some sectors especially in the crafts sector. So there are increased the number of women in participation of home-base craft sector like in embroidery, lace making, weaving and printed textiles. In some cases empowerment of women also increases but in most cases, the working condition of the women workers is poor and they are paid less than men. (Krishnaraj, 1992 cited by Rao, 2005) Women have a great work load in their lives; they have a double burden, to earn income from their work and also have to fulfill their household responsibilities. They laboring the whole day; generally they work 12 to 16 hours per day and losing their health and energy both. (Durand, 1975 cited by United Nations Economic and social commission for Asia and the pacific, 1987) Being a embroidery skilled worker, their work requires women to sit long hours in the same restless position and sometime they have to ignore there household duties that resulting in tension, qurels and a lot of deases like eye, back bone, shoulders as well as other mental and emotional problems depending upon the physical environment in which these women live and work. (Sarna Shukla, 1994) Wage discrimination is obvious and usually common against women in Asia. Wage rates are as low as one-third or it may be observed that women always paid less of those paid to men. In Jobs also, there are described carefully to discriminate the labour practices involved; female positions typically require few skills and give poor salary. (United Nations Economic and social commission for Asia and the pacific, 1987) In handicrafts the embroidery work is a traditional art but many women faced some difficulty of marketing their skill. Generally simple embroidery piece do not have sale value except it is the part of gift items.And if the women contect the shop keeper or designers she may sale her prodect but beang a women she is restricted to go outside .so, she have only those customers to know them personally. (Gyanendra Dastidar, 2000) Mostly the womens work is under-reported in Pakistan. Purdah is the main reason that stops any direct communication between the enumerator and the female respondent. The household head, usually a male, reports any female activity. Because purdah is a status representation, related with material well-being, and womens work is frowned upon, it is expected that female labour is under-reported. (Whyte, 1982 cited by United Nations Economic and social commission for Asia and the pacific, 1987) In some traditional industries like jute and cotton textile, mechanization has contributed in the rejection of female employment. Women represent 90 percent of the workers in these industries such as the making of embroidery. But intermediaries and middlemen who provide the raw materials and market the final product, make them badly exploited by only paying the women minimal wages. (Bhatty n.d.; Indian Council of Social Science Research, 1975 cited by United Nations Economic and social commission for Asia and the pacific, 1987) Crafts production is culturally recognized activity. The skills present in the economic sector and many women adopt and practice it. But they dont get to recognition and value not in the economy and not in the household level. They dont have any financial records, on average it accounts for less than 1% of a households income. This is not much to lead toward progress. There are too much women who participate in home-craft production but they just have little impact on it.womens are badly exploted by the men even they work for batterly then men. (Freedman Wai, 1988) s NGOs should help the home based women workers in the shape groups. Those groups should supply raw materials, make sure appropriate and timely payments, arrange for the credit and support in design development. (Ministry of Labour, 2000). This is the need of hour to arrange female workers into cooperatives and other organizations where production and marketing are included, and it should sported by the government to stop this high rate of women exploitation. (United Nations Economic and social commission for Asia and the pacific, 1987)

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Aspects of the Tragiccomedy As I Lay Dying Essay

William Faulkner’s As I Lay Dying is both comic and tragic in many ways throughout this book. This is a story of a family who carts their dead mother, Addie, to be buried in her hometown in Jefferson. There are fifteen monologues from this book including one from Addie. The family goes through horrendous obstacles in order to complete their trip. Addie is the heart and soul of this family yet she never wanted this life. Addie’s father would tell her, â€Å"The reason for living was to get ready to stay dead a long time. 169. So she took Anse for a husband and gave him Cash and Darl. After she had Darl she made Anse promise to bury her in Jefferson when she died. But Anse wanted more kids. Addie had an affair with Mr. Whitfield and had Jewel. She gave Anse Dewey Dell for the negative of Jewel and last Vardaman. Addie is bitter about her life and doesn’t show the love and affection towards her kids except to Jewel her favorite. As long as she is around this family the more suffering she will bring to them. All her children except Jewel want her love and kindness but she rebukes them. In the beginning of their journey Jewel takes horse with him, but Anse is against this because he feels it is disrespectful towards Addie. Jewel should be riding in the wagon with everybody else. They come to a bridge which has just collapsed because of the weather and the river is moving very fast. It will take the trip longer if they go around so the Bundren family makes up a plan and goes through it. Cash and Darl make their way across the broken bridge when the wagon tips. Darl was supposed to hold on the coffin but instead lets it go hoping that God will take care of her and that would end their trip. However, Jewel went into the river to rescue his dead mother from the river and foiled Darl’s plans. Cash has a broken leg but he’s lucky because it was the same leg he had broken before so he is not begrudging it. Cash holds off on medical treatment until they bury Addie. When they come to rest at Mr. Gillippsie’s barn Darl has had enough of this trip all he wants to do is end it and send Addie on her way, peaceful like in her sleep. So Darl sets the barn on fire, livestock and all. However, Jewel comes to the rescue again and saves the coffin from being burnt. Vardaman knows Darl set the barn on fire but lke a good brother he keeps it to himself and doesn’t tell anybody. The rest of the family suspects it is Darl and are going to deal with him after they bury Addie. Darl introspectively has an insight to his family’s secrets. He has discovered that Dewey Dell is pregnant and is going into town to get a treatment for an abortion; Jewel is not Anse’s son, and by that thought he taunts Jewel to no end. He knows Anse is going to Jefferson for a new set of teeth even if he has to beg, steal or borrow. Anse takes money from Cash and Dewey Dell, and then he sells Jewel’s horse to pay for a new mule team to get them to Jefferson. When they do reach Jefferson Addie is passed due and ready for the ground. Anse borrows a couple spades in order to dig the grave and they lay her to rest. Betrayed by Dewey Dell and assaulted by Jewel, Darl is taken away to the asylum. Only Cash understands him; only Cash and Vardaman pity him. Referring to himself in the third person, a sign of extreme self-estrangement, Darl says: â€Å"Darl is our brother, our brother Darl. Our brother Darl is in a cage in Jackson where, his grimed hands lying light in the quiet interstices, looking out he foams. ‘Yes yes yes yes yes yes yes yes’. † To the end it is a search for kinship that obsesses Darl, and his cryptic row of affirmatives may signify a last, pathetic effort to proclaim his brotherhood. Howe The characters in As I Lay Dying do not clearly communicate to one another. Each goes and does whatever they need to do for themselves with little regard for the other. Addie Bundren was a very private woman and would not have it any other way; I believe she passed that quality to her kids. Because, if they did talk to each other maybe there would be a better bond with all of them instead of guessing and tip toeing around the matter. In this tragic comedy book the irony is seeing what you hate inside multiply itself by 5. This is what Addie Bundren created. Dewey Dell is in the same place her mom was only a little worse off because she is not married. Darl is goes mad and heads to an insane asylum. Vardaman is trying to piece everything together and still believes his mom is a fish. Jewel is kinder to his mother in death then he was when she was alive and I believe he regrets that. Cash has one good leg and still has his carpenter tools, he’ll make it through somehow. Anse cannot live without a wife so when gets his teeth in Jefferson he introduces the children to their new mother.

Thursday, January 9, 2020

Buying Common App Personal Essay Samples

Buying Common App Personal Essay Samples The One Thing to Do for Common App Personal Essay Samples There are 3 distinct structures to compose a personal narrative. Just since it is optional does not indicate it's unimportant. The Downside Risk of Common App Personal Essay Samples There's, naturally, a limit on the range of pages even our very best writers can produce with a pressing deadline, but generally, we can satisfy all the clients seeking urgent assistance. The application process is either paper based visa or on the internet. Its one of the most essential elements of your college application and it may be the hardest. If there's a problem you have at any time solved or maybe would love to solve, describe it. Or you struggled in school for a child as you have dyslexia. Correcting grammar errors is a simple fix that each and every applicant must do. Keep in mind you may only write one personal statement so stay away from using language that is specific to one particular course or university. Grades and academic references alone are not sufficient to differentiate between students so that your private statement is your opportunity to show universities why they need to supply you with a place. It is possible to also become several discounts on our site which will help you to save some more money for future orders or anything you want to spend them on. You may also use our private statement worksheet so as to map out the above. The batches for the classes are concentrated and offer personalized attention to every student ensuring best outcomes. If you are beginning a company or applying for a VISA, loan, or some sort of permit, you may be requested to compose a personal financial statement. Keeping your own personal statement concise is particularly important on account of the limited character count. In addition, there are personal statements that arrive in the shape of a list, like the personal financial statement. Better include more information inside them. Begin your private statement with a brief expert summary about yourself. A body at which you will tell about your own personal qualities. It is essential that you are able to present your feelings in a very clear and beneficial method. It's highly recommended that you just pick the topic that you are able to deal with, for instance, if you're not t sketching the personality characteristics then you need to better not elect for it. Instead, decide on a specific event and really delve into the essence of that pain. Various things to various men and women, since the situation demanded. Never neglect to go over your private statement to make sure there aren't any errors. Another thing to check in your private statement is if it does not have any grammar mistakes. In general, there's no single correct topic. College admissions also rely on the essay you write. Keep in mind, an admission essay sample may be good way to find out more about the writing procedure and understand the task better. The college entry essay is possibly one of the most crucial ones you'll ever write. You're writing a college application essay, and you have to know about your audience. Essays, generally speaking, covers different topics. An essay is a brief type of writing depending on the author's point of view. It is the most important part of a college appllication see sample essays perfect for applying to schools in the us. Such essays help gauge the writer's capability to write on a particular topic in an engaging method. If you're one of the almost 1000 students every month who look for Common App Essay examples, you're certainly doing the proper thing, as there's a lot that it is possible to learn from essay examples bad essays along with good one. The tips mentioned previously are useful when writing your essay since they help you put emphasis on the most essential bits of your abilities and achievements. Bridget's essay is quite strong, but there continue to be a couple little things that could be made better. There are some essential things that go into a terrific Common App essay. EssayEdge is the major application essay editing service on earth. If you intend to compose an effective essay, it's time to get familiar with every one of the varieties of essay prompts. It's very valuable to take writing apart to be able to see just the way that it accomplishes its objectives. Therefore, many students and employees decide to get inexpensive essay rather than writing it themselves.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Clinical Management Of Pre Eclampsia - 1631 Words

Scientific Abstract Proteinuria is a measure utilised in the diagnosis of pre-eclampsia. However, there is debate regarding the threshold for significance. The objective of this study was to determine which proteinuria threshold is important for the clinical management of pre-eclampsia in high-risk women, with the specific aim of assessing whether women with 300-499mg/24h of proteinuria could be considered suitable for outpatient management. This was achieved by evaluating incidence of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes against the differing thresholds of proteinuria in women with pre-eclampsia. The data was collated from a nested case-control of women who partook in a VIP Trial: Vitamins In Pre-eclampsia (2006). 947 women with singleton pregnancies were identified. They were separated into four groups, to compare women with pre-eclampsia and proteinuria (300-499mg/24h or 500mg/24h or over), to women who had no occurrence of proteinuria but had either chronic (CHT) or gestational hypertension (GH). The results of the study clearly indicate that women with proteinuria of 300-499mg/h have more severe hypertension, early deliveries and SGA infants than women managed as outpatients (CHT and GH). However it is apparent those with proteinuria above 500mg/24h are at substantially greater risk of complications than those with a level of 300-499mg/24h. 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Also, women who have had a history of obesity and GDM; are pro ne to obtain cesarean section, hypertension, future diabetes, pre-eclampsia, urinary tract infection. Clinical symptoms can also be seen in the children of the women with GDM, for example: macrosomia, birth trauma, increased risk for respiratory distress, and developmental problems. Another factor to keep in mind is if the mother has hadRead MoreGestational Diabetes Mellitus : An Overview1241 Words   |  5 Pagesmacrosomia, neural tube defects, prematurity, hyperbilirubinemia, neonatal hypoglycemia, and hypocalcemia. Also, women who have had a history of obesity and GDM; are prone to obtain cesarean section, hypertension, future diabetes, pre-eclampsia, urinary tract infection. Clinical symptoms can also be seen in the children of the women with GDM, for example: macrosomia, birth trauma, increased risk for respiratory distress, and developmental problems. 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