Saturday, August 31, 2019
General Motors Organizational Transition General Motors was founded by William Durant on September 16th, 1908. General Motors (GM) is an American based automobile manufacturing company. From its inception, GM has grown from a small Detroit, Michigan manufacturing plant to one of the top three auto manufacturers in America and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s second largest. GM has manufacturing plants in 35 countries and sells in over 200 countries. Throughout the years, recognizable brand names such as Oldsmobile, Opel, Cadillac, Pontiac and Chevrolet have become a part of GM. The company has branched out into the aviation and financial lending fields as well. Recent economic meltdowns have affected GM to point of bankruptcy in 2008. It took an American government bail-out in 2008 to save the company. GM then began an over-haul of its entire organization; including production, manufacturing, management structure and fiscal responsibility practices. The article, GM Organizational Change by Michelle Powers, published March 17, 2009, covers many points of the corporationÃ¢â¬â¢s transition from a traditional organizational model to a transformed organizational model. The article identifies how changing the organizational model impacted GMÃ¢â¬â¢s workforce, customer base and local communities that GMÃ¢â¬â¢s many arms of business were a part of, support systems that were put in place at GM to insure successful transition. Before the transition was put into effect, GM had a traditional hierarchical management structure and viewpoint. At the top of the structure was the president, who was answerable to only the board of directors, senior management and vice-presidents of varied departments were answerable to the president. On down the line there were division managers & supervisors and so on, then your average, regular employees. Having separate entities, such as Buick, Cadillac and other divisions operating differently from each other and the parent company was costly and ineffective in this Ã¢â¬Å"earth is flatÃ¢â¬ economic and communications era. GM North America President Mark Reuss, stated, Ã¢â¬Å"I could see clear as day that the mix and the structure of people just wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t right. These changes were necessary for GM to move faster and win. We need people who are change agents. After the economic troubles of the company, all aspects of how the company was run and directed were researched. Jack Smith GMÃ¢â¬â¢s CEO stated, Ã¢â¬Å"I had the opportunity to really structure the business in the way I thought is should be run. Ã¢â¬ GM has started to move their organization into what is called a transformed organizational model (TOM). A TOM does not have multiple departments, performing sepa rate tasks from others with different goals. It has taken several years to transform GM to an organization with a more centralized organization. The company set up The Automotive Strategy Board, a management committee to ensure that the CEO was informed and knowledgable of the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s progress, trouble-spots, and over-all health. A monthly meeting is held with all the heads of all the regional departments even Global officials had to attend via phone. With this plan, all of the companies leaders were informed and were able to implement common goals and practices. The separate computer systems bogged down communications and often produced more mis-communication than not. A central software program was developed and implemented. All offices, administration staff, management, and employees were all trained on the new system world-wide. This level of development and training was costly. With the new level of stream-lined communications and universal usage, the system and training proved their worth. In the new Mishawaka, Indiana plant, GM has pioneered a teamwork concept called the Global Manufacturing System (GMS). Teams of workers have designed the jobs that are performed for each stage of the production process. The worker is supported first by his or her own Ã¢â¬Å"teamÃ¢â¬ , a group of four or five workers assigned to perform specific tasks. The team is supported by a team leader. In turn, each group of four or five teams has the support of a group leader. In addition, each person is a member of a team assigned to perform specific tasks. Each team member is cross-trained for each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s job. Ã¢â¬Å"Inherent in this process is everyone helps everyone. The whole focus, the entire focus, of GMS is to support the operator,Ã¢â¬ said AM General President and Chief Executive Officer, James Armour. So far, AM General has spent $35 million on more than 177,000 hours of training for employees. The plant(s) implementing the GMS model show more confidence in the workers. On the assembly line there are cords for each station in the event that a worker feels that there is a problem, he or she can stop the line at his or her discretion to correct the problem. The assembly lines are designed more ergonomically. Other plants use the straight-line assembly model where workers have to reach the line either by differing platform heights or outright reaching from the ground. The new plant has the assembly line rolling along for different heights for each portion of the production needed in that placement. Employees have more control over their life on the job. This has been leading to less management/labor disputes . The plant has a three-step grievance system and as of yet, no grievance has gone further than the first step. Not all plant employees who have been offered a transfer to the new GMS model have not been interested in a transfer. For some people the old way is working best for them. If this model continues to be successful, they might not have a choice about it for much longer. I believe that the changes GM has been implementing have improved the company overall. It seems that extensive research showed that getting the people of all levels throughout the company more involved with more aspects has had a positive impact. The use of teams has proved more effective than the solitary worker with a manager or supervisor to report to. Centralizing communications has put everyone on the Ã¢â¬Å"same pageÃ¢â¬ for goal setting, problem solving, and share of information throughout the organization. The more information that is shared, the better for all concerned. The employees are more empowered with the chance to improve their production, implement their ideas, creativity and have more responsibility. The company has showed concern for the workerÃ¢â¬â¢s well-being, respect for their jobs and contributions to the company. That type of leadership gives the employees confidence in their leaders and their jobs. The entire over-haul of the company has predominately been concerned with OB. Corporate culture begins with OB. You cannot change a company for the better without taking into account the people who work at all levels for the company is not going to be effective on any level. GM has been recovering from its financial difficulties and these changes have had a major part in it. It has been showing consistent growth and profit for the last year. It has also been making itÃ¢â¬â¢s payments for the financial bail-out. I believe they are the only company who has done so. On top of that they have been running ads telling the people of America thank you and acknowledging their employees for their efforts at improving GM.
Friday, August 30, 2019
There have been many theories that have played a part in the foundation of early childhood education. It has been these theories that have changed the way teachers educate their students. Creating an environment that contributes to learning is key to the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s success. I feel it is the social communication between students, their peers and the teacher that determines a successful school experience. I feel that effective communication is a fundamental component to my educational philosophy. As a result, I feel that VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Socioculture Theory most closely represents my own philosophy. Vygotsky felt that Ã¢â¬Å"children learn social interaction. They acquire cognitive skills as part of their induction into a way of life. Shared activities help children internalize their societyÃ¢â¬â¢s modes of thinking and behaving and those folkways their ownÃ¢â¬ (Papalia, Olds, & Feldman, 2008). My education philosophy is to produce the best most achievable learning experience for all students in my classroom. Lev Semenovich Vygotsky developed VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Socioculture Theory. In this approach to teaching Vygotsky believed that Ã¢â¬Å"childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s mental, language, and social development is supported by and enhanced through social interaction (Morrison, 2009). According to Vygotsky the development a child has is concentrated on the communication they have with people around them in a social environment. One of the most important aspects of VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Theory is the zone of proximal development (ZPD). The ZPD is the area of development that is too difficult for the student to achieve by themselves. It is necessary to recruit assistance from another person. The help can come from a teacher, another adult, or even a classmate (Morrison, 2009). VgotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Sociocultural Theory gives students the opportunity to develop their strengths socially while facilitating cognitive growth and development. I plan to incorporate many of VgotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s theories in my preschool classroom, such as; scaffolding and the zone of proximal development. Using scaffolding, teachers can help students continue to achieve in the areas of development that are too difficult for them to accomplish alone. When a preschooler is able to master a task, the scaffolding can be faded out. In my preschool classroom I want students to build on their own strengths so they can become more independent learners, both academically and socially. Physical and Motor Development involve active learning and how a child uses his or her body. Locomotion is the part of motor development that involves children learning to run, jump, hop and dance. Preschool children like to take part in fine-motor activities as well, such as coloring, drawing, and painting. TeacherÃ¢â¬â¢s that incorporate both physical and fine motor activities in their daily lessons will encourage physical and motor development for each child. o Activity Ã¢â¬â Body Parts Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children are encouraged to move different body parts to music. As the teacher calls out a body part each child must wiggle and dance around emphasizing that particular part of the body. The teacher can also change this activity to encourage students to move to the meaning of words. For example, stretch your arms up high, bend down and touch your toes, crawl like a baby or jump like a kangaroo, the possibilities are endless. o Activity Ã¢â¬â Sticker Fun Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children love stickers, for this activity give each student a variety of stickers that are a variety of colors and sheets of paper that are the primary colors. Instruct students to peel off the sticker and place the sticker on the matching sheet of paper. Ã¢â¬ ¢ Children can also work at the Art table. The table would be supplied with crayons, glue, scissors, markers and paper. In Cognitive Development most preschool children are in the preoperational stage of intelligence. Their ability to use symbols and their language skills are developing and improving. Preparing hands on activities are fantastic to assist the preschool child in the area of cognitive development. o Activity- Sink or Float Ã¢â¬ ¢ The teacher would need to gather several items like ping pong balls, straws, small beach ball, rocks, paper clips and toy cars and fill the sensory table with water. The teacher would hold up several items and ask the students what they are and whether they think the item would sink or float. The teacher would call on students to drop items into the water, the class would see if the item sinks or floats. After the experiment ends the students could graph what items floated and what items sunk to the bottom. o Activity- Swamp Sort Ã¢â¬ ¢ The teacher would need a small supply of small and large plastic alligators, as well as two bins one for the large alligators and one for the small ones. She would also need the sensory table filled with water and sand. The teacher would explain to the class that they were going on an adventure to find alligators. Some of the alligators would be small (she would hold one up) and some alligators would be large (again she would show the class). The class would take turns using a net to scoop out alligators and then they would have to sort them into the assigned bins. Social-Emotional development is a very important part in the development of a preschool child. The social and emotional part of development in a preschool program prepares students for success throughout their time in school, as well as, the rest of their life. Social-Emotional development can be encouraged in the classroom through social interaction, exploration and experiments. o Activity-Smelling Jars Ã¢â¬ ¢ Have children play a sorting game. Before class the teacher would fill empty jars with several items that have strong aromas. For example, the teacher could fill the jars with items like fruity smell-orange, floral-rose petals, and spices-cinnamon and/or garlic. The students would be blindfolded as they try to identify the smells. After the children have examined all the aromas they would have to sort and graph the smells into two categories the ones they liked and the ones they did not like. o Activity-We Are Thinking Ã¢â¬ ¢ The teacher explains to the class that they are going to play a game that requires them listen, look and think. The teacher goes on to explain that in this game she will think of different classmates and give clues to reveal their identity. For example, she could say I am thinking of a friend who has blond hair and is wearing a red shirt. The students will have to look, listen and think to identify their friends. Ã¢â¬Å"Language skills grow and develop rapidly during the preschool yearsÃ¢â¬ (Morrison, 2009). Reading to and with other children is a great way to encourage language development. Children begin to learn and have the capacity to become beginning readers as their language skills improve. o Story Time Ã¢â¬ ¢ Including story time in the preschool classroom is a wonderful way to encourage language skills. Imagination can make the typical story time new and different. The teacher chooses an appropriate book and then reads it to the class. She pauses throughout the book allowing the children to tell her what they think would happen next. After the story is over the children can role play and dress up and act out the story. o Sight Word Treasure Hunt Ã¢â¬ ¢ Preschool children can use sight words to increase their vocabulary and build emerging skills for reading. The teacher tells her students they are going to play a game today and that at the end of the game they are going to find a treasure. Before the game the teacher would have to hide a small Ã¢â¬Å"treasureÃ¢â¬ box filled with whatever she chooses (enough for each student to have one). The teacher would also have to place cards with different words around the room. The teacher would explain to the children that they would take turns reading each site word and then finding it in the classroom. On the back of each card would be the next sight word to find. The students would choose a student to go next until all students had a turn the last student would find the treasure that they would share with the class. The student would be encouraged to ask other students for help if needed. This game could be easily adapted to be more of a competition the teacher could form teams and declare a winner, although, all children would still receive a Ã¢â¬Å"treasureÃ¢â¬ . The first formal assessment I would be sure to include in my preschool classroom would the High/Scope educational approach. The Ã¢â¬Å"High/Scope approach provides broad, realistic educational geared to childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s current stages of development. To promote the constructive processes of learning necessary to broaden emerging intellectual and social skillsÃ¢â¬ (Morrison, 2009). The High/Scope Observation assesses six broad categories; initiative, social relations, creative relations, creative representation, music and movement, language and literacy, and mathematics and science (Morrison, 2009). The High/Scope can help preschool teachers create an environment that is conductive to learning by supporting the five essential elements; classroom arrangement, active learning, the daily schedule, assessments and curriculum. The second formal assessment that I would incorporate into my classroom would be Brigance K&1 Screen II. This assessment only requires ten to fifteen minutes per child and is used on children entering kindergarten and first grade (Morrison, 2009). Children who were getting ready to leave preschool would benefit from this assessment as it would measure the childÃ¢â¬â¢s skill level. I could then pass this information on to the next teacher along with my own personal observations. My favorite type of informal observation is the portfolio. This form of assessment allows the teacher to collect samples of the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s work over a period of time and then determine the childÃ¢â¬â¢s strengths and weaknesses. Teachers are able to track a childÃ¢â¬â¢s development for a specific period of time that they determine. The childÃ¢â¬â¢s progress can be tracked weekly, monthly, or through quarterly assessments. The second kind of informal observation that I will be sure to include would be the Interview. This allows children to explain different behaviors, papers they have worked on and individual answers that the student may have given to questions. Engaging children in discussion can only benefit all involved teachers and peers alike. It is important to keep the lines of communication open between teachers, students and their parents. Students need to feel that they can speak up and ask questions about anything that will help them be successful students. The curriculum in my preschool classroom would include literacy. Time each day would be set aside for Alphabet knowledge, this would let students know that letters have names and shapes and that letters represent sounds in our language (Morrison, 2009). Phonics would also be used on a daily basis. Time be would assigned for reading decodable books. Children would learn to read using their phonic knowledge along with content clues such as pictures. Mathematical curriculums are an important part in the preschool classroom as well. Math plays a very prominent role in the preschool classroom today (Morrison, 2009). Children in my preschool classroom will engage in many different activities. For example; sorting, counting, experiments and observations. Mathematics can also be incorporated into the time spent in the computer lab by playing math games. Preschool children are hands on learners so the use of manipulatives would be encouraged. The best classroom environment would persuade children to Ã¢â¬Å"engage in personal, meaningful educational experiences. In addition, the classroom contains three or more interest areas that encourage choiceÃ¢â¬ (Morrison, 2009). Ã¢â¬ ¢ The classroom should be organized so all children can find the supplies needed to be successful. This will also promote independence. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The classroom floor plan should support classroom programs as well as help to implement programs. For example the Art Center should have the necessary supplies stored near the art table. The reading center should have a supply of books and chairs placed there. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The ideal environment would also include an area for small and large group (circle time) instruction. Ã¢â¬ ¢ An adequate space for storage would be needed. The items would have to be labeled in such a way that the children would know where to return them to keep the classroom neat and orderly. Ã¢â¬ ¢ The ideal environment would include a classroom where children feel safe and protected. School should be a place where children are free to learn without fear of being bullying. There are many different preschool programs available today. They all offer programs that use philosophies, theories and concepts to try to meet the needs of preschool aged children. There are many things that promote relevant learning but one of the most important in my opinion is social interaction. It is because of that belief I feel that VygotskyÃ¢â¬â¢s Sociocultural Theory and the High/Scopes Approach to learning is the most effective method for learning in the preschool classroom. The most important thing is to make the classroom a place where each child is given the opportunity to learn in a fun and effective manner, always putting our students first. References Morrison, G. (2009). Early childhood education today. (11th ed. ). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education, Inc. Papalia, D. , Wendkos Olds, S. , & Duskin Feldman, R. (2008). A childÃ¢â¬â¢s world: infancy through adolescence. (11th ed. ) Boston: McGraw-Hill.
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Some people say that high school is the most crucial part of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life but others they say that it is the happiest chapter of a studentÃ¢â¬â¢s life. There are a lot of things that a teenager wants to explore and it starts when one reaches high school; curiosity starts in this part of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s life. But did it ever occur to your minds what happens in a typical and an atypical high school class? Have you ever pictured in your minds what is it like being in a high school class? Have you ever wondered how the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ relationship with their teachers is? What do the students do often? In this section Ã¢â¬Å"demented kindergartenÃ¢â¬ , of the book Ã¢â¬Å"High School ConfidentialÃ¢â¬ Iversen tackles about the relationship of an atypical high school students with their teacher. This chapter shows how the students get along in class and how they treat each other. It also talks about what goes on between the students. Through Charity and VicÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship as classmates, as shown in the section demented kindergarten, Iversen shows that respect was lacking among the students. There is no good relationship between the two students; it employs that there was no respect for women. In this section, Iversen also shows the domineering nature of man over women. In Charity and VicÃ¢â¬â¢s relationship it was shown that Vic does not have respect over Charity as a woman. Although Vic and Charity were classmates and charity was a girl Vic did not bother to talk to her in a disrespectful manner; it is not lawful to talk to women in an odd way because it degrades womenÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence and dignity. When Vic said that he had a hung over, Charity was kind enough to tell him to take Advil for his headache, but instead of saying thank you to Charity Vic yelled at her and called her a slut. It was not proper for him to call Charity a slut because he is not in the position to scrutinize someone, most especially women. Disrespect and power over women was also portrayed through Vic and Sara. As Iversen had written in his book, Vic spun SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s chair until she can no longer take it and tumbled. Sara did not oppose Vic while he was spinning her chair; she just let him do what he wanted to do because Vic was more powerful than Sara; because Sara might have felt that she can not do anything to stop Vic because she was helpless. Although Vic knows that Sara would be helpless and might tumble if he would spin the chair faster he still managed to spin SaraÃ¢â¬â¢s chair without hesitation. In the social context of the book Ã¢â¬Å"High School Confidential, IversenÃ¢â¬â¢s observation about how men disrespect women and the domineering nature of man is very common. Vic is powerful in the social structure of their school he was a bully. And because he is a man he is over empowering women, like Charity and Sara, around him. He is fund of dominating because he is a man; he wanted to show that he is more powerful than women. Men are domineering in nature and they seek superiority over women; they raise their manliness by doing things to make women look and feel helpless and less powerful. This nature of men is actually very visible in the society and in some cultures. Just like in Japan, men of Japan do typical things that a man does; earning money for the family and being the head of the family, they are not suppose to be seen in kitchen because it would be a disgrace for their manliness. While women of Japan are suppose to do only household chores, they are not entitled to do manly things. Some men show their manliness in other ways such as sadism, they tend to beat their wives because they wanted to show that they are the more powerful kind and that no one can oppose them most especially women, but some men do the beating habitually thatÃ¢â¬â¢s why many government agencies help battered women. That is also why there are republic acts which tend to help women against violence. A single insult to women can be treated as violence against them; telling them that they are slut, whore and the likes. Cursing women and saying various words that might degrade them can be called violence against women. In the section Ã¢â¬Å"demented kindergartenÃ¢â¬ Iversen tells the domineering nature of men is a problem of our society. Everybody is not aware of this problem that is why Iversen made a way on how to communicate with the society through his book Ã¢â¬Å"High School ConfidentialÃ¢â¬ . Iversen wants others to know that in simple ways such as bullying a classmate can employ male domination. Iversen also exploited the disrespectfulness of men to women. Although the theme of the section is not that clear and visible unless understood, Iversen had still managed to write the book in the most convenient way he knows (Iversen)
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Production for Live Events and Television University of the Arts London - Dissertation Example The researcher affirm that sponsorship, as a marketing niche, increases the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s visibility in television shows, thus, supports scaling up its products prominence in the marketplace or among consumers. It also affirms that indeed sponsorship is a strategic method of competitive leveraging in marketing a companyÃ¢â¬â¢s product. While other empirical research affirm sponsorshipÃ¢â¬â¢s contribution in resource generation for a specific television program and adds to the economic stability of a television company but this largely differ in countries and in the strategies adopted by both sponsoring companies and by the TV companies promoting a trade, brand or product. The survey affirmed, as showed in Q1 result, that majority of the respondents are aware of the sponsorship program within the British television industry and only an insignificant number are not. But notwithstanding this professed awareness, only 50% of these respondents pay attention to the commercials or pr oducts indorsed by the companies that are availing sponsorship as a strategy to leverage with other competitors in the market.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Reading #2 - Assignment Example Brian limited practiced that employees are allowed to choose their own working style with out any specific system to follow. Employees were allowed to eat and drink wherever they want in the working area and there is no formal dress code for them. The pay was in direct proportion with the hours of work they performed. However Brian Limited was facing code of conduct problems from some time and the proprietor resolved to hire a new Ethics Officer for the company named Jeanne Wood. Jeanne understood the need of a community approach for the company and devised some policies: JeanneÃ¢â¬â¢s policies were very effective and proved to be useful in increasing the behavior related issues. It also helped in decreasing the employee turnover rate as compared to previous years. However Jeanne thinks that the female employees are still not getting proper privileges and there should be a system that recognizes their needs and give them appropriate salary packages and opportunity of
Monday, August 26, 2019
Why the Saudi Government has implemented banning exports of cement and explain the answer in terms of monopoly strategy - Article Example This ban in led to a 58 percent slump in the cement index and reduced profits for most cement producing companies. The decision by the Saudi government to stop and ban the exportation of cement was prompted by the soaring domestic prices of building and construction materials. In the subsequent discussion, we will attempt to identify and explain the cause(s) of such a shortage, and factor(s) leading to the imposition of the ban. In addition, we will assess the reasons for its partial uplift and subsequent reinstatement, how the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s actions translate to monopolistic behavior. Finally, we will analyze the impact, and effectiveness of the monopolistic strategy on the economy and in particular in relation to the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s projected economic growth. Despite being the highest producer of cement among GCC countries, Saudi Arabia has recently been experiencing cement shortages. This is because the manufacturing companies export most of their products to international market to fetch higher prices. The exportation of cements has grown steadily between 2004 and 2007. In 2006, the cement export volume was quoted as 2.26 million tones. Total production over the same period was estimated at 33.1 million tones against a local consumption level of 31.2 million tones. This translates to a shortage of approximately 0.36 million tones locally. These statistics show the total production of cement in Saudi Arabia was 33.1 million tons in 2006. However, the total consumption of cement in the same year was about 31.2 million tones (El-Quqa, Hasa, Desai, Rout & Gupta 2007, p. 9). Comparing the above statistics, it is evident that there has been a shortage of cement in the local market. Since this trend has continued, the government responded by banning exports of cement to alleviate the shortage in the local market. In 2009, the ban was partially lifted following an upsurge in demand in the Middle Eastern countries.
Corporate Financial Strategy - Essay Example The decision to make an investment is based on this benchmark. Mostly the companies employ various sources of finance such as equity, preference, debentures, term loans etc. The calculation of WACC is done using the weights of the different components of capital base. There are varying returns for all the sources. As the equity holders bear the maximum risk, the returns required by them is higher than the other investors. This is mainly because in case of extreme situation like insolvency, the equity shareholders have the last claim on the assets of the company. In such situations preference is given to the lenders of the company. Moreover, the declaration of dividends is not mandatory for the companies. A dividend is declared only if the company has surplus earnings whereas the payment of interest cost is mandatory. The company has to honour its debts irrespective of its profitability. This is the reason that the lenders get a lower return as compared to equity holders. But, if the company is highly leveraged, even the lenders become cautious and demand for higher returns. This is the reason that all the companies try to optimize their capital base for minimizing the cost of capital. The cost of capital is the minimum return that a company must earn from the business activities to payoff its investors who provide the necessary capital in the form of shares, debentures and loans. Two sets of information are needed for calculating the cost of capital- weights of the various sources of finance and their respective costs. Many studies have been conducted on the cost of capital which is dependent on the composition of the capital base of the company. The capital structure of a business measures the ability of a company towards meeting the needs of its stakeholders. Modigliani and Miller (1994) highlighted how the value of the firm is not affected by its capital structure as the tax advantage of debt
Sunday, August 25, 2019
Science Questions - Essay Example Living systems in a region may contain wetlands, prairies, coral reefs, rainforests, tundra, or the canopy of an old growth forest. Ecosystem services would comprise the capability of nature to assimilate waste, turn sunlight into edible plants, and create oxygen. With in this natural source we can be able to come up of a natural income. There are lots of natural capitals that can be a source of natural income. An example of natural capital is the water get from springs which are then processed and purified and be sold as mineral or distilled water. This kind of natural capital and natural income can be able to sustain resource by preserving the natural resource itself. The company that sells this drinking water can put up their business site where they get their water. They can make strategies to put up the building in such a way that it will also look like a resort to customers. They will take care of the trees and the water flowing there so that it can replenish itself. Cleanliness should also be maintained and the owner should establish ecological ethics to refrain from any environmental issues that may lead to the downfall of the business. In this way, it will be attractive for customers to come along and buy the product. According to Wikipedia (2006), primary production is is the fixation of light energy into chemical compounds (the construction of sugars from CO2 and water; photosynthesis). Gross primary production then refers to the total amount of energy fixed by plants (the primary producers). This energy can then be used by plants to generate new biomass; growing. While net productivity according to KimballÃ¢â¬â¢s Biology Page (2004) refers to the amount of energy trapped in organic matter during a particular interval at a given trophic level. The quantity of the trapped energy of the plants (net productivity) will then be processed (H2O, CO2, and sunlight) by plants into starch is called primary gross. Biodiversity has been
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Law of Evidence - Essay Example ?3 Lord Lane refused to follow the previous authorities and exclude the confession, because the confession obtained in the Fulling case did not involve any deliberate impropriety on the part of the officer who obtained it. No intimidation was used, there was no bullying or hectoring, hence they could not be held to be oppressive. However, Dennis points out that the danger arising from the exclusions inherent in the definition of oppression in Fulling as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"The effect is that both the English and Australian Acts allow for the possibility of other, undefined, cases to fall within the prohibition on the use of oppression.Ã¢â¬ 4 Similarly in the case of Lam Chi-ming v the Queen, Lord Griffiths also explained the rationale for Section 76(2) in rejecting improperly obtained confessions, not only due to Ã¢â¬Å"possible unreliability, but upon the principle that a man cannot be compelled to incriminate himself.Ã¢â¬ 5 Exclusion of such confessions is also mandated by civilized society that requires the police to behave properly with those in their custody. (b) The general position in law has been that even when a confession is made voluntarily, the Courts have a residual discretion to exclude it in order to preserve the fairness of the trial. Where the question of inducement by an authority to elicit the confession by creating fear or hope of advantage arises, it must necessarily be excluded. However, Lord Lane articulates the view that an involuntary confession cannot be withheld as evidence, merely on the grounds of what the police had done or omitted to do.6 The difficulty of establishing implied inducement is his criterion for the statement that every voluntary statement will become inadmissible if the motives of authorities are to be assessed, because the police are interested in solving cases. However, LordÃ¢â¬â¢s LaneÃ¢â¬â¢s statement cannot be applied indiscriminately, because of the limitations identified above as the general position in law. 2. Counsel may not be
Friday, August 23, 2019
Compare the evil aspects of the three stories. (notes from underground, paradise lost and frankenstein (movie)) - Essay Example In considering the three works, the aspect of evil decides the shift of the story. In the epic, Paradise Lost, the expelling of Satan from Heaven has made him fight against God and His army. Satan and his followers assemble and sworn against God and his creature-man in Earth. Even though God had warned Adam and Eve about the cunningness of Satan, Eve falls into the temptation of Serpent and this led Adam too commit disobedience to God. SatanÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to win over man and thereby God have constituted the major aspect of the poem. Even though the protagonist in Paradise Lost is Man, the involvement of Satan in almost all parts of the poem has made many to consider Satan as the hero of the poem. True the over dominance of evil aspects in Paradise Lost is in fact very vivid throughout the poem. William G. Riggs says that, Ã¢â¬Å"We have seen that evil in Paradise Lost, as if at a loss to discover its true shape, mimics good, and in consequence the shape of evil is often deceptive ly attractive to unwary humanityÃ¢â¬ (Riggs 169). The movie, Frankenstein has been proclaimed for its science fiction aspects in it. The young scientist, FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s attempts to recreate a human creature was about to success but Fritz, the devoted assistant of Frankenstein, by mistake, had put a criminal brain.
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Perseverance Essay Perseverance is such a powerful word that has so many meanings. Mastering what this word means, results in such a successful life which yet takes a lot of discipline to achieve. Most peoples summaries of perseverance is never giving up even when things arenÃ¢â¬â¢t going your way. Which is correct, but I think about perseverance in references of some of our worldÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest leaders. Take for instance one of AmericaÃ¢â¬â¢s greatest Civil Rights leaders Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. People were so hatred, spiteful, and cruel to this extraordinary man. But did he ever give up when the going got tough, no. Did he just say, Ã¢â¬Å"Hey man, this is too hard for me to handle! Ã¢â¬ , no. What did he do, He kept pushing through. When people were spitting at him or cursing at him or even burning down his house, he didnÃ¢â¬â¢t stop what he was doing. Now you might ask why would someone go through so much trouble. Well that question is easy to answer. He never stopped because he believed in what he was doing. He believed that the dream he was chasing for, was to better the world and to better the human race. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s why when he was announced deceased everyone commended him on his great accomplishments. He showed an abundance of perseverance. Nothing is better than you. You should never give up. You can take a break, but never give up. Perseverance is a very important and positive character trait to have in your life. You have to have steady persistence in spite of difficulties, discouragement, or obstacles. Failure only occurs when you stop trying or pushing through. You canÃ¢â¬â¢t go through life quitting everything that seems to be too hard to handle. If youÃ¢â¬â¢re trying to excel in something you have to stick to it, better yourself, and try harder. Someone or something is always going to be there trying to distract you from achieving your dreams and/or goals. Your job as a person is to decide not to be distracted and let go of anything that is standing in your way. You have to have faith, hope, consistency and hard work to accomplish anything. You also have to take responsibility for yourself. If you need help ask for it. Chances are someone has the same question as you but are just too scared to ask. Being optimistic and having self-confidence help you to reach your goals and purposes. Even though people express it more than others, perseverance not only ensures survival but it also ensures success. When we have that burning desire to achieve something, it is a great feeling of accomplishment when the goal we strive for is fulfilled. Unfortunately, throughout our journey, on the road to success there will be a great amount of trials and tribulations standing in our way. Only through perseverance can we conquer those obstacles that make our journey harder. When I used to have trouble with my schoolwork with not turning them in, not doing it, or turning them in late, I was so confused. I used to be unorganized and wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t ask question when I donÃ¢â¬â¢t understand the work that was handed to me because I didnÃ¢â¬â¢t want to be made fun of. ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s whatÃ¢â¬â¢s wrong with our generation now. No one wants to ask question because weÃ¢â¬â¢re scared of being laughed at or made fun of. I knew that I could do better than what I was doing. I knew that it would only get harder and harder as the days went on and when I collected more and more homework. I came home one day and decided to watch a movie just to ease my mind. I logged on my Netflix account and watched Pixars: Finding Nemo. This is one of my favorite childhood movies. As I watched it I heard the voice of Ellen DeGeneres who starred as Dorothy sing Ã¢â¬Å" Just keep swimming, just keep swimming, just keep swimming swimming swimming.Ã¢â¬ ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s when my life turned around for the better. That quote had me realize that when the going get tough, just keep going. When things become difficult, just keep going. When life throws obstacles your way, just keep going. When you feel like thereÃ¢â¬â¢s nothing you can do, just keep going. My life has just began throwing obstacles out me. I know it will only get harder as time rolls on. But IÃ¢â¬â¢m confident and I know I can handle it. Th ereÃ¢â¬â¢s no obstacle too big that you canÃ¢â¬â¢t handle. If you feel as though it is too difficult to handle ask for help or guidance. There will always be someone whoÃ¢â¬â¢s there to help you. Having a positive outlook on negative situations are the key to success. Having patience is another key to success. Knowing that things take time and nothing comes over night is a good way to think positively. For example: if you had a bad day at work, no one was doing their job correctly and andÃ cooperates are blaming you is a good time to show positivity. You can ask everyone to make sure their job is done correctly and hopefully the next day wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be so bad. Without perseverance our world leaders wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t explore new lands and human civilization would be impossible. A great number of modern successful international corporations were close to bankrupting, but perseverance enables them to stay and improve their businesses. People who have lack of perseverance either ends up poor job that pays less than minimum wage or with a tremendously bad life situation. Most people are waiting on someone to do their work for them. Relying on the government, law, and some donations but never put in the effort to do their own work. A perseverant person can stand all the difficulties of the environment and survive in the most difficult situations, including nature, unfavourable government, etc. Perseverance to me is the determination in a person to not let anything or anyone stop you from obtaining a goal. It is very important that everyone have perseverance because most people would not make it in life without it. It gives you ethics and makes you a more stronger and more responsible person. A person who is highly intelligent, and a scholarly genius, but is lethargic by nature, and reluctant to diligence, can hardly prosper in life, because he does not know how to use his brain and labour in the right direction. In this world, all the great things have been made or constructed only by perseverance.In human life, perseverance plays a very important role. Modern science, architecture, literature, music-in every sphere of life-perseverance is the root cause of sucÃ cess and glory. Shakespeare did not compose such volumiÃ nous works just in a day. He had to work hard during days and nights with tremendous perseverance to create such great masterpieces. Therefore, perseverance must be practised from the very childhood so that the noble habit becomes a part and parcel of ones life. With that great asset or goodwill, a man can walk easily on the hazardous road of his lifes journey; and success will be his and his only.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
The Crucible language essay Essay The Crucible by Arthur Miller fits into the genre of a Realism. Its time period is set in the late 1600s. Thus the language used in the script is archaic and realistic for the time period it is set. The images that The Crucible creates in the minds of the audience (although infrequent) are enlarged and exaggerated; Danforth declares he would hang ten thousand that dared to rise against the law and an ocean of salt tears could not melt the resolution of the statutes John Proctor describes his farm as a continent and his wifes behaviour as an everlasting funeral. This enhances the imagery in the minds of an audience. The play is of a naturalistic theme, but in the language Miller can be surreal. In order to make the audience aware of what is happening elsewhere than the scene (within naturalistic conversation) the characters discuss the events that are going on in the town, this is known as Reported action for example Abigail says to Paris Uncle the rumour of witchcraft is all about this is a form of narrative for the audience who cannot leave the present scene on stage. Miller used the actual court records from the witchcraft trials to influence his wording in the script. He studied these in great detail and attempted to use accurate dialect from this time period. However Miller admits that without planning to, he elaborated a few of the grammatical forms, particularly the double negatives. Another influential source for the use of language in The Crucible, which Miller referred too is the king James (authorised) version of the bible. When Proctors wife, Elizabeth, describes to him the effect Abigail has on the court room, imagery is used from the Old Testament of the bible saying and where she walks the crowd will part like the sea for Israel. The fact that everyone inside the play uses the same archaic speech, for example all the men are referred to as mister and the women goody short for goody wife, distances a twenty first century people; it gives the feeling of a diverse society from our own. Even though they are in America the characters do not speak with an American accent as they are still fairly early settlers in the country and sound British. In the script there are distinctive speech patterns enforced by Miller. The servants/slaves in the play use bad grammar for they are low status and uneducated for example Mercy, Proctors servant, says to him I best be off. I have my Ruth to watch. In contrast to Paris the town pastor who has high status, he uses proper wording e. g. you compromise my very character. I have put clothes upon your back and Proctor who is a farmer uses rough language like Ill show you a great doing on your arse one of these days. and uses abbreviations for instance Ah, youre wicked yet, arent y! by this language you can tell hes a bit of a farmer. Various colloquial phrases no longer used like there be no blush about my name and I say shut it both said by Abigail who is an orphan living with her Uncle, Paris. The Proctors farm is big and further away from the town and when he describes it as a continent that indicates to the audience its size and setting. There is not a lot of imagery in The Crucible and this is because it is a naturalistic play and in real life people dont usually go around trying to create imagery in their speech. Although, Miller does use repetition recurrently, particularly the words witchcraft, God and pretence which are the main themes of the play. These words play on the subconscious minds of the audience. God is dead is a widely-quoted and sometimes a misconstrued statement by German philosopher Friedrich Nietzsche. It is found in some of Nietzsches classic work. God is dead is not meant literally, as in God is now physically dead; rather, it is Nietzsches way of saying that the idea of God is no longer capable of acting as a source of any moral code or teleology. Proctor speaks this statement in the last act of the play when he is bound in prison, he is completely battered by his fellow Salemers and he cant believe what cruelty human beings are capable of. Miller makes Proctor say this because that is what he himself is thinking along with a lot of other people at that time of McCarthyism. In the beginning scene of Act two involving Proctor and Elizabeth there is significant language used. To begin with their language is not the same as a modern audiences, their grammar is different; I were planting far out to the forest edge this makes it harder for the audience to relate to the characters. We are reminded of their religion when Proctor says they should pray now for a fair summer. The couple use simple, short sentences when talking to one another, which show conflict Are you well today? I am . it is a rabbit this conveys the tension between them. Proctor uses ominous metaphors in his speech for example Lilac is the smell of nightfall and Its warm as blood beneath the clods. This hints at the blood shed to come. When Proctor rebukes his wife for letting their servant go to Salem he repeats again that it was a fault this enforces his point of authority. Proctor compares their servant to a mouse making Elizabeth, who seemingly cant stand up to her, look even more pathetic. The word God keeps being repeated throughout the scene making an audience think of sin, religion and punishment. More biblical references are made when Goody Proctor states that where she walks the crowd will part like the sea for Israel. Meaning Abigail who apparently has much power at the court, which the audience has found out about through the couples reported action in their conversation. Proctor: Oh, it is a black mischief. Again with the ominous wording. Proctor tells Elizabeth he will think on it referring to testifying in court about Abigail, Elizabeth repeats this statement let you think on it her repeating this is mocking and disrespectful to John. Proctor retorts calling her Women which is equally demeaning which is what Miller was aiming for. When in argument with his wife proctor talks formally compared to how he spoke before I have good reason to think before I charge fraud on Abigail this is unfriendly, in comparison to how he spoke to Abigail his former lover, and similar to a parent using their childs full name when reprimanding them. An everlasting funeral marches round your heart Proctor tells Elizabeth, this again is ominous and he is foreseeing his own death at the end of the play. Proctor compares his wife to a court judge. Imagery for the audience when he says her justice would freeze beer! Miller uses a rich variety of language techniques in the play/script of The Crucible, which communicate narrative, form and content to the observer, which have just been described previously, above.
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Diagnosis and Treatment of Asthma in Saudi Arabia More than 300 million people currently suffer from asthma worldwide. It is the most common chronic disease among children (WHO, 2008). In Saudi Arabia, there is a lack of statistics about the asthma, however, an estimated number can be assumed through Abou Zaid et al study. According to Abou Zaid et al (2009), there are around 7 percent of the children and adolescents in the south region only suffering from bronchial asthma. That percentage was based in one city (AlTaif) from the Saudi Arabia regions (south region). Moreover, that study was based on a city that does not have polluted environment such as the capital city and the surrounding areas. That city AlTaif, this city is known with the high altitude city and clean environment due to the staggering distance from the polluted industries. From that point, it can be seen that the percentage of the children who have asthma will be higher in the capital cities or in the industrial environments due to the excessive present of the poll ution and the asthma triggers (Abou Zaid et all, 2009). Background: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that a recurrent symptoms. Its resulting from the interaction between the inflammatory cells and the tissue cell that cover the airways. The inflammatory process during asthma is leading to the asthma pattern such as the difficulty of breathing, wheezing, coughing and chest tightness (Henson Johnston. 2002). The enhancements of pediatric asthma have clearly linked to the sensitivity of airways. This sensitivity can lead to the asthma onset. The allergic inflammation of the airways can be stimulated by the allergens (Henson Johnston. 2002).asthma in children can be caused by many factors. Several factors that might increase the risk of development of asthma such as: genetic, gender, environment and prematurity when delivery (Henson Johnston. 2002). Smoking for women during pregnancy has been linked strongly to asthma in children (Henson Johnston. 2002). This will be an issue with the women who smoke in Saudi Arabia. Primary Health Care Centers in Saudi Arabia have been lacking in asthma care knowledge structures (equipment and medication) (Alhaddad et al. 1997). In addition, there were a large number of asthma prescriptions from the primary health care centers that had no documentation of the dosage for the asthma inhalers and this showed how poor the documentation has been from the asthma medicines prescribers. Moreover patients who were ordered asthma steroids have shown a poor compliance with the prescriptions. All of that has led to more primary health care centers visits and more hospitalizations. The studies also showed there were only 35% of the prescriptions were in the preventive therapy. That means the other prescription were either higher than the preventive therapy or lower than the recommended preventive therapy (Aldashash, Almukhtar. 2003). The significance of the proposal: The clients who have poor compliance and with no educational tools, the hospital visits and hospitalization by them will increase and remain in the high level. However, if the clients have been given booklets which teach them how to handle the asthma attacks and how to prevent them, the hospital visits may be decreased with the proper motivation and education. Aims and objectives for the project: This proposal is targeting the children with asthma to decrease the hospital visits by them. It will also improve the awareness for the childrens guardians and what is an asthma booklet for children may promote the quality of the childrens lives and it also may decrease the hospitalization. That booklet are also aiming to maintain the self management for children with asthma it will increase the public awareness in what to do if someone had an asthma attack by providing the children and their guardians the sufficient education. The strategies of the project: Making the booklet. This strategy is the main concept to start the implementation process. In addition, this booklet should start with giving the clients useful information related to their needs. The ways to make the client satisfy with this booklet, all the information are in need to be simple to understand. Up to date information needed to fill out this booklet to make the client able to relate it to the recent self management approaches. The booklet will be very handy to the client who cannot or do not have the ability to check the information via online. All the updated and needed data will be available at the booklet for the reader to read it and to ask about anything that they want or they need to know about the booklet. Process of implementation. Asthma self management booklet needs to be implemented in strong used methods to be able to gain the fruits of successes. Knox (2000) has suggested that the implementation process need to be based on many theories to give it the ability to adapt on the various changes in the clients needs or barriers such as eye sight problems and literacy. The elected theory will be adapting Lewins theory. Lewins theory has been elected because of it is the easiest theory to be controlled and monitored. In addition, Lewins theory is capable to be adjusted to suit the wanted changes more than the other theories (Knox, 2000). Literature review: This literature review has only focused on the recent articles that only done in 2009 and 2010. These articles are not about the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia due to the lack of the recent resources that have mentioned the asthma education in Saudi Arabia. These articles were taken from the search engine CINHAL based on key words asthma and education. The search was limited on the articles that have been published in years 2009 and 2010. Only 32 hits were found: 13 of them were in English but those articles were based on the church communities. Thus, those articles have been excluded due to the inconvenient to the topic to apply it in Saudi Arabia. In addition, 6 of the articles were written by a foreign language Portuguese language so these articles have been excluded too. That will leave only 13 recent articles to use in this literature review. The literatures will be mentioned under the following sub headings Asthma in connection with communities: Asthma self care management is more beneficial for the client when it is connected with the community (Otsuki et al 2009; Millard et al 2009; Krieger et al 2009). The purpose of connecting the asthma self management plan is to get the maximum support to the clients and to the plan itself. This will give the wanted plan with the maximum validity. When talking about using the communities to give a great aid to the asthma self management plan from allowing a large informatics resource to be focused on that plan (Clark et al 2010). The management needs to be supported by giving guardians need to be included in that education to allow them to be a good participant in the asthma self management plan for the children (Tolomeo 2009; Zhao et al 2009). When the asthma self management plan has been separated from the community. The wanted education plans will be disrupted by the invalid information and will be lacking of resources such as clients and trainers. This will lead to failing in that education plans (Farber, 2009). Asthma in connection with medical facilities: Asthma is a medical problem. This medical problem will require a medical attention. When a clients education have been provided without any connection to any medical facilities, then the asthma education will contains a lot of fraud information. From that point, asthma self care management plan should have some connection with the medical facilities to be able to be suitable to be carried out with attention from the medical staffs. In addition, the medical facilities will lubricate the educational process to the client by allowing them to feel the difference before and after using the suggested self management education plan (Praeger 2009; Farber, 2009). Asthma education for undergraduate nurses: The way to make the educator nurse able to deliver a good education to the clients is to allow the nurses to get more methods to educate the clients when they are taking their degrees. In another words, allow the asthma self management methods to be taught in the tertiary schools to the nurses to increase the flexibilities to the nurses to adapt the methods to teach the clients more effectively and to create the realism in the education plan (Richard, 2009). Reducing clients with asthma hospitalization: When the clients are getting an insufficient education, the emergency visits by the clients will be increased (Flores et al 2009). Vice versa, if the health education have become more effective to the clients, that will lead to promote their health. When their health status has been promoted, the visit to the emergency room will be reduced (Zhao et al 2009) Clients with asthma in schools: When the clients who diagnosed with asthma are having an episode of asthma, then the absence of school will occur and the emergency visits will increase (Murdock et al 2010). Increasing the community awareness and the asthma self management education will promote the clients health status and that will decrease the absence from schools (Otsuki et al 2009). Moreover, when using an education techniques to the children clients, an appropriate technique should be used to avoid the incompliance from the children such as ignorant or depression (Murdock et al 2010). One study done by Tolomeo has reported that only 15 % of children who diagnosed with asthma that have received a complete asthma education (2009). That is less percentage than what has been reported by Apter et al (2001). However, another study done by Millard et al has argued that the affect of asthma absence in schools were highly over estimated (2009). However, there still gaps between the recommended asthma care plan and the current plan that has been used in the schools (Frankowski, 2009). In addition, Frankowski recommended Physician Asthma Care Education (PACE) to increase the effort in communication while providing the client the asthma self management plans (2009). The content of the booklet with the rationale: The content of the booklet will use the simple English to make it easy to be understood by the client and the client guardian if any. In addition, it will be written as a dot point to make it easy to be absorbed by the clients mind. The booklet will contain some of the pictures to make it easy to explain the contents to the clients. The booklet will contain six sections; those sections will be clearly identified below. First section: This section is talking about the asthma disease and includes sufficient information about the asthma. It is also include the sign and symptoms of asthma. The aim of this section is to give the client enough information about the asthma to determine the reality of the disease and how to identify the sign and symptoms. This will be useful to the client and their guardian to be able to identify the initial information about what is asthma and what is it doing to the client health status. In addition, this section is including some information about how to control the asthma. In specific this booklet is aiming to motivate the self management for the clients to promote their health by promoting their self control for the asthma. Moreover, if the booklet has engaged the client and their guardians by acknowledging them to the sign and symptoms of asthma on sets, then the booklet has allowed the client to be more confident in managing his health condition and that will reduce the depression to the client (Murdock et al 2010). The aim is achieved by including an explanation on what are the asthma and the pathology for the asthma. This definition is to make it clear to the client in what is exactly going on in the clients lungs. The booklet did also include some of the sign and symptoms for asthma and some definitions for the difficult words such as wheezing. Wheezing is the whistling or squeaky sound thats appears when the asthmatic person are breaths (LBI 2007). Moreover, the booklet has identified when the clients need to contact their doctors and when they need their medications. In addition, the booklet has shown some information about how to control the child asthma. All the information that has been written in the booklet was from up to date references. The second section: The aim of this section is acknowledging the client about the different kind of asthma medication and the purpose for them. This page will allow the client to gain the adequate knowledge about what is the medication and why those medications have been prescribed for the client. This also will allow the medical team to educate the client about the medication. By engaging the clients and their guarding in the asthma self management plan and provide them with sufficient education then the booklet is actually insuring that the clients are getting the adequate asthma education (Tolomeo, 2009). In addition, if the clients are aware of the asthma onset sign and symptoms then the client also aware about how to use the supplied medication to solve the onset, then the pressure to the client from the sickness itself will be reduced and the client will not be more depressed about their medical conditions (Murdock et al 2010). This aim is achieved by explaining that there are two kind of asthma medication: the reliever one puffer and the preventive medication (LBI 2007). The medication will be varying from each client. That is why there were no specific brand name to the inhalers has been mentioned in details. All the details that have been written in the booklet were general due to the avoidance of getting biased or malfunctioned. Section three: This section contains some useful pictures that explain to the client how to use the different kind of inhalers. This will promote the client knowledge about the proper way to use the inhalers to insure the maximum benefits from the medication. Section four: This section was established in this booklet to educate the client about what are the asthma triggers and how to solve or eliminate them to be more in control for their asthma situations. Section five: This section is mainly about the asthma management plan during emergency action plan. This section can be filled by the physician to make the client able to handle emergency situations and when to know when their health status are dropping down or getting better. This section is essential to the booklet due to the highly urgent need to the client to know their emergency action plan. In addition, this section is giving the clients and the reader more information on how to scale the clients with asthma health status regarding the asthma point of view. When the client is able to measure the peak flow and know what the vital variance to determine their asthma status, then they will know when to seek help or when they are in the risk free zone. That will allow them to take in charge for their health and will give them an advance notice when to be worried and need to seek attention or help for the medical staff. This also will allow the client to know when they need to book themselves an a ppointment in the medical facilities in advance. This issue may lead to less waiting hours in the primary health care clinics from the asthma perspective. That will lead to less hospitalization and might reduce the mortality rate for the clients. Section six: This section is about the useful community services in Saudi Arabia. This will help he client to seek the adequate sufficient information about asthma when needed. It is also including some of the valid web site links for those community services to be able to locate them in their areas or have the contact numbers for them. According to Knox (2000), explained that the clients are reading about their condition more than what they used to, especially when they are looking for a solution to a problem that they have. When the clients are suffering from a specific problem, they would require looking for the solution and wanting a valid resource for them to be able to find the solution. The implementation process: Every implementation process would require a leadership or changing agent. While there is no leadership or no change agent the implementation will eventually fails due to there will be no control for the outcomes. In addition, the leadership or the change agent needs to be armed with skills to be able to control the implementation process and need to have adequate expertise about what is the change and what the favor from the implementation. The leadership shall identify the changes and how it will affect the organization. In addition, the leadership will have the leading skills to lead the other staffs to be able to reduce or eliminate the fears from the changes and the uncertainty while making the changes. Moreover, this leadership will visualize the recent valid change process to be able to implement them to the changes that the leadership will require (Swanburgs, 2005). The leaders ship should be honest responsible and have the flexibility to admit their own mistakes. Moreover, t he leaderships need to be qualifies persons whom can built a business on a trust and can reach to important goals (Swanburgs, 2005). The process of making the implementation more flexible and effective is to make it based on more than one change theory (Knox. 2000). The implementation of the booklet will basically base on Lewins force field model of change. Lewins model is consisting of three stages: unfreeze stage, moving stage and freeze stage (Swanburgs, 2005). However, other change process theories might be included in this project. Ethical issue: The implementation process will consider that there will be no harm that will occur to the clients and there will be no harm for the distributers or the medical staffs (Swanburgs, 2005). If any harm was noted to any of the parts the implementation process will immediately terminated and that incidence will get investigated to see where the implementation process were deviated from the track and to discuss whether or not that harm will affect the future of the implementation process. The harm might happen when the clients or their guardian are not understanding the booklet and might misuse it. Unfreezing stage: This stage will include the gathering of all the recent asthma brochures and investigate what are the brochures that are out dated. All the out dated brochures need to be collected and announced to the client to not use them. After that, an introduction for this booklet needs to be done in small community such as rural area. The supposed area in Kingdom of Saudi Arabia is AlMajmaah due to it contains only three Primary Health Clinics and two hospitals. The introduction for the booklet will be started on the asthma inpatients in one of the hospital and for this trail the elected hospital will be King Khalid Hospital because of there is special department for asthma patients in there and there is Special Ward for clients with asthma there. That ward consists of 12 beds especially for children whom diagnosed with asthma so the trial can be easily controlled. Prior to distributing the booklet, the project leadership will collect the sufficient data about the status of those children and what they have received from the education point of view. The culture habits such as raising sheeps or camels should be considered and investigated whether or not it triggers the asthma attacks. That will need to be investigated by the physicians. The other educational elements should be considered such as literacy, education level, any cultural impairment such as lack of transportation or lack of guardians, any physical impairment such as eye sight or deafness. After collecting and analyzing the data, the leadership will establish basic team to assist the leadership in applying the changes. This team will be armed with experience and it will contain trustable persons that are accountable for the successful of the supposed change aims. After the investigation has been collected and analyzed, some of the inpatient clients will be elected for the first trial. The election will be based on the children whom with low complications to decrease the chance for the failure of this trail. Th ose selected subjects and the selected team will receive an intensive course for the use of the booklet and the benefits for the booklet. That course will not be established unless a formal consent has been gained from the hospital administration and from the guardians of the children. The intensive course will be held for one week and it will contain the needed educational material such as the booklet, some posters and brochures to maximize the knowledge that will be gained by the mentioned subjects. This trial was inspired by Roger s theory (Swanburgs, 2005). After the intensive course the booklet will be handed on to the clients and observation for the real benefits that gained after handing the booklet will be monitored. Moving stage: In this stage the leadership and the nominated team will start distributing the booklet among the whole AlMajmaah inpatient children whom are suffering from asthma especially the recent diagnosed children. When introducing and distributing for the booklet a classes will be held in all the inpatients wards that contains children whom diagnosed with asthma to brief them of the benefits of using the booklet and how to use them. The mentioned classes will run for a period of a month. After the mentioned month, an evaluation process will run for the whole two hospital and investigation about the actual benefits that been gained from that booklet. The booklet may need modification or alteration to make the booklet more suitable for the use by the clients. When there is any alteration for the booklet the previous implementation steps will be carried out again to insure the smoothness of the changing process. After finishing the alteration for the booklet and the successful of the trails, th e booklet will be recommended to the Ministry of Health to implement it for the whole Saudi Arabia medical facilities and that the aim of this project. Freeze stage: When completing the booklet trials and insuring the maximum validity of the booklet contents, then the booklet should get the official shape and recommended to the Ministry of Health to be able to make it the primary distributed booklet for children with asthma in Saudi Arabia. Discussion and limitation: The most significant barrier for this booklet would be adapting the medical team and the public about the best safe way to use the booklet, this can be covered by established a educational facilities or teams to keep educating the public how to use the booklet and an intensive program to teach the medical teams as well. In addition, some of the information might be not valid or useless after a while, that can be cover by creating an evaluation teams to keep this booklet up to date. Moreover, the booklet maybe in need for more information or more sections and that can be dealt with by the evaluation teams. The booklet may suffer from the lack of compliance from the patients, that can be dealt with educate the patient of the importance of following the instruction that been given by the medical team. Moreover, some patient may manipulate the informations in the booklet or adding more information that might bias the booklet that might be solved by educating the patient in how dangerous it would be if they done so and how inappropriate treatments might result from that. However, some of the departments in Saudi Arabia have adopted some of the asthma education techniques such as King Fahd National Guard Hospital. KFNGH has created a link via web site to allow the clients to calculate the severity of their asthma if they have it. Future recommendation: This booklet may be used as a data base style so the clients will require a USB device to carry their entire case file and their required information. The booklet can be as well a digital booklet so the client can check it out via online or using the new devices such as i pad or iPod. The booklet will include in the future more sections to get the booklet further in the way to reach to the holistic approach. Conclusion: In conclusion, asthma is a chronic health issue that affects many people from all around the world. Many asthma self management education method has been used around the globe. Moreover, the asthma education is one of the essentials to reduce the clients emergency room visits and hospitalization. Education will require connecting it with the community and medical facilities to get the maximum benefits to the plan. In addition, one of the education methods that can be used to educate the clients is the asthma self management booklet. This booklet need to have up to date information to be able to assist the clients to promote their health.th booklet will contain six section that have been detailed above. The implementation of the booklet will go via three stages unfreeze, move then freeze. All the implementation stages should be monitored thoroughly to maintain the success. This booklet may reach to preferred destination and may not. If it reached to the final hoped destination then th e booklet will require evaluate and frequent update.
Using Animals Symbolically by Using Poetic Devices I will be discussing the ways in which the poets use animals symbolically by using poetic devices. The three poems that I have chosen are Ã¢â¬Å"The TygerÃ¢â¬ by William Blake, Ã¢â¬Å"The EagleÃ¢â¬ by Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Lastly, Pied Beauty by Gerard Manley Hopkins. Alfred Lord Tennyson has used an image of an eagle to give the reader an image of a man standing on a cliff top waiting for his world to fall around him. He is in a desolate area; there is no society near him Ã¢â¬Å"ringed with the azure world. He standsÃ¢â¬ . He watches the sea pass lower than him his world collapses beneath him n he falls. Ã¢â¬Å"And like a thunderbolt he fallsÃ¢â¬ The sun has symbolized God. And his closeness to the eagle. In this poem, the writer has used alliteration Ã¢â¬Å"lonely landsÃ¢â¬ when he wishes to emphasis the nature, its surroundings and beautyÃ¢â¬â¢s. Followed by short verses. He uses metaphors and long lines to show how strong the bird appears to be. In addition, the eagle waits and watches alone from the mountain highs to catch his pray. in this poem there is a...
Monday, August 19, 2019
Flying into orbit, at times, seems just an ordinary event. We have been launching objects into orbit for several decades now. Over time, it seems that the knowledge of the first attempt to send an object into the atmosphere was lost. One lone American was very absorbed into the science of this very thing. He had an obsession about him. John Goddard spent endless hours trying to perfect a small rocket launch. Though it sounds simple, lighting a fire underneath a small projectile, and make go in a straight line toward the heavens, is very detailed orientated. In a book written by Arthur C. Clark, he talks about early work that was done in the world of rocketry, but at the time it was only for entertainment. It happened hundreds of years ago. One of the first experiences with rockets came from Ã¢â¬Å"thirteenth century ChineseÃ¢â¬ (Clarke 71). Today, the technology is so advanced; flights of hundreds of miles are not uncommon. In the beginning of rocket experimentation, there were many trial and errors. They would fire up the engine of a projectile in hopes of a spectacular launch into the atmosphere. Many times it would only result in some kind of explosion. Catastrophe, if anything, is the nature of launching any projectile. Mans attempt to send objects toward the clouds has sparked interests in going further than ever before. The moon and the outer planets of our solar system have now become an obsession with not only the science community, but with a lot of ordinary folks as well. In order to satisfy this obsession, ways had to be found in order to get to these distant objects. The world we live on is small compared to the surrounding planets and universe but it is large compared to the complexities of ways to leave its ... ..., the commander will create a steeper angle of descent to minus 20 degrees (almost seven times steeper than the descent of a commercial airliner) (http://science.howstuffworks.com)Ã¢â¬ . This is only a small glimpse of what goes on before and after the lift off of the space shuttle. Details of micro gravity during the orbital maneuver and the interaction of the crew during its mission can add volumes to this report alone. In the end, the space shuttle is a very versatile instrument. From experiments in human research to inserting the Hubble space telescope into orbit. What would it be like in another 200 years when man has established colonies on mars or the moon? What an interesting life our future children will have. Works Cited: Arthur C. Clark http://science.howstuffworks.com http://science.howstuffworks.com Physics, a worldview, Kirkpatrick and Wheeler,
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Dynamic Characters in A Tale of Two Cities Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The English novelist, Charles Dickens, is one of the most popular writers in the history of literature. During his life, he wrote many books, one of them being A Tale of Two Cities. Dickens uses many dynamic characters in this novel. Dynamic characters or, characters that drastically change, play a very important role in the novel A Tale of Two Cities. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Towards the beginning of the novel, Jerry CruncherÃ¢â¬â¢s actions are rather disturbing. Mrs. Cruncher is very religious and is always praying. Jerry constantly refers to her praying as flopping and unnatural, even though she says her prayers Ã¢â¬Å"only come from the heart. . . . they are worth no more than that Ã¢â¬ (49). He does not put up with her flopping and even abuses and criticizes her when she chooses to pray. Ã¢â¬Å"I wonÃ¢â¬â¢t be prayed agin, I tell you. I canÃ¢â¬â¢t afford it. IÃ¢â¬â¢m not a going to be made unlucky by your sneaking. If you must go flopping yourself down, flop in favour of your husband and child, and not in opposition to Ã¢â¬â¢emÃ¢â¬ (49). Jerry Cruncher has a secret second occupation that no one knows about. He is a body snatcher and hides this from his family and everyone else. When Mr. Lorry finds out about this, he is very disappointed and says, Ã¢â¬Å"My mind misgives me much, that you have used the respectable an d great house of TellsonÃ¢â¬â¢s as a blind, and that you have had an unlawful occupation of an infamous descriptionÃ¢â¬ (286). At the end of the story, Jerry Cruncher makes two vows to Miss Pross. One of them is that he will never interfere with his wifeÃ¢â¬â¢s praying. He says, Ã¢â¬Å"and let my words be [taken] down and [taken] to Mrs. Cruncher through yourselfÃ¢â¬âthat wot my opinions respectinÃ¢â¬â¢ flopping have undergone a change, and that wot I only hope with all my heart as Mrs. Cruncher may be a flopping at the present timeÃ¢â¬ (340). The other promise he made to Miss Pross is that he will give up body snatching. Another dynamic character in A Tale of Two Cities is Dr. Alexander Manette. Before Dr. Manette went to the Bastille, he is a Ã¢â¬Å"young physician, originally an expert surgeon, who within the last year or two has made a rising reputation in ParisÃ¢â¬ (298). When the reader met Dr. Manette for the first time, much of is memory is forgotten and he is very weak.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Katniss Everdeen & Chris Stewart Imagine being only 14, having to take care of your family, worrying about shelter and food for your whole family. This was the situation Katniss Everdeen and Chris Stewart were put in. Something like this rarely happens and itÃ¢â¬â¢s not fair to the kids that is does. Normally you canÃ¢â¬â¢t compare fictional characters and nonfiction characters. However; in this situation it is very easy because they both had a similar childhood and upbringings.They both came out on top with a lot of pride, toughness and perseverance and the willing to take care of others. Katniss Everdeen is a fictional character in the book The Hunger Games. She is 16 years old and lives in a district called Panem in the poorest part of town called, The Seam. She lives with her mother and younger sister. Her father passes away during a coal mining explosion when she was 11 years old.After that tragedy KatnissÃ¢â¬â¢ mother went into deep depression and was unable to take care of her daughterÃ¢â¬â¢s, Katniss and Primrose. During her Mothers depression Katniss had to come and step up to take care of the family. Her family was on the verge of survival and on the brink of starvation. Ã¢â¬Å"I was determined to feed usÃ¢â¬ ¦ I kept us aliveÃ¢â¬ said Katniss. She did whatever it took to take care of them from walking miles to try and find scrapes from garbageÃ¢â¬â¢s in the rich part of town, to hunting in the forest for plants.ThatÃ¢â¬â¢s how her father got most of their food hunting illegally in the forest for plants. Katniss did something remarkable that changed her life forever by using these four words Ã¢â¬Å"I volunteer as tributeÃ¢â¬ . She saved her sister from basically dying at The Hunger Games and putting herself in that situation. She called it an ancient sign for saying Ã¢â¬Å"admirationÃ¢â¬ and Ã¢â¬Å"goodbye to someone you love. Ã¢â¬ She was also very skilled in archery, hunting and trapping. Having learning th
Friday, August 16, 2019
In the following report, I will be give illustrations and possible solutions for an overburdening problem that exists in the U.S. Postal service Operations throughout the country. Overtime is an age-old problem that has gone long overdue without someone or a group paying serious attention to correcting this problem. The United States Postal Service is a large organization with many facets of operations; I will be concentrating on what we call the Field Operation or Area Office. This is where the public comes into personal contact with the Postal Service either by way of the individual letter carrier (mailman) or the window clerk who assists with business transacted at the post office. Every community across America has a Post Office. We are one of the most visible employers in the world. The U.S. Postal Service employs approximately 750 thousand diverse people. Many different cultures and nationalities come together to combine as an efficient workforce that gets the job done. The pay is moderate, so it would be pretty difficult to become independently wealthy working for the Postal Service. But, there are some employees that believe if they work, as much overtime as possible, maybe they can become rich. Unfortunately, this poses a daily obstacle to overcome for most managers in the U.S. Postal Service. The U.S. Postal Service is a production driven outfit therefore; everything is based on production verses cost ratio. The average workday for a postal employee is eight hours. It does not take a genius to figure out that the longer it takes to do the job, the more money is made. So, the employee that desires more money would be motivated to take longer to complete his or her assigned task(s). Historically, the Postal Service has been plagued with managers that were not diligent in doing their jobs with regard to overtime management. Because of this clusters of employees became accustomed to a Carte Blanche style of working. Employees were in effect managing the overtime and work production. During my career as a letter carrier, I completed my assigned tasks within my eight-hour shift working overtime only when deemed necessary by my manger. When I became a manager, I expected everyone who worked for me to have the same work ethics that I had. If this was not case, I attempted to force them to work as hard as I did. I later found out that this was not a good management approach. In fact, this was the easiest way to harvest disgruntle employees. Here was my dilemma; I was the new young manager who expected an honest dayÃ¢â¬ s work, for an honest day's pay, paired with a staff that had been allowed to do whatever they wanted for the past ten years. The office of my first management assignment had 90 percent of the employees working an average of 10-16 hours of overtime per week. My performance as a manager as well as well as the production performance for our office was based on the amount of manpower hours used to deliver the total volume of mail. I will present information about the systems put in place that worked as a check and balance format. These systems enabled me to demonstrate to my employees that my requests were not unfair or unreasonable. I will discuss the areas that the employees were able to assist in helping to aleve the excessive use of overtime. I will also discuss in detail areas that contributed to the excessive use of overtime that did not involve my employees. With implementation of the new systems, my office has reduced its overtime to 14 percent. Ã While controlling overtime may seem as easy as just making an announcement Ã¢â¬Å"that no one is allowed to work overtimeÃ¢â¬ ; this is very far from true in the U.S. Postal Service area offices. There are many variables that come into play, the first of which is staffing. In order to do a good job; the office must be properly staffed. We have percentage breakdowns that factor in amounts of carrier routes; amounts of deliveries per zip code that derives to an employee complement. Each office has a number that satisfies their complement. If for any reason a particular office is operating under their complement that makes the task a more difficult. Any office can be fine one week and short the next, due to retirement, injuries, or details to name a few. If any of the aforementioned were to occur a manager could request replacement for these employees, whether they will be granted or not is another story. Then we have the day-in day-out mystery of who will call in on sick leave. Having any of these instances to take place in a given day can simply cripple an operation. If we take a carrier operation anywhere in the world that has 35 city carrier routes and 4 carriers call in sick on a Monday, that manager now has to scramble to get coverage for those four vacant routes. It is not like other organizations where your work can carry over by one day; the mail must be delivered daily without exception. This makes it difficult to get the work done in an eightÃ¢â¬âhour day for the remaining employees. The first thing the manager must do is to telephone four employees who would normally have the day off and ask them to come in and work their day off. Bare in mind that the U.S. Postal Service has something called an Overtime Desired List, a voluntary list of employees who wish to work overtime on assignments. When the manager telephones employees to come in on their day off, he must first call those on the Overtime Desired List. If the manager does not get four employees from the list, he may then exercise the option to call employees not on the Overtime Desired List. The only alternative to this situation is to have employees already present complete their assignments and pitch in to help deliver the vacant assignments. The advantage of this situation is that it allows you to minimize your overtime usage for the day. If the manager was able to get four employees from the Overtime Desired List to come he has automatically used 32 hours of overtime for that day. By having employees already present work additional hours, you are able to use far less overtime for that day. This is an area I feel managers need to stress to their bosses so that all efforts are exhausted in hiring more employees for offices to operate under their complement. The earlier mentioned example could have been avoided had that office been properly staffed. A fully complemented office would have unassigned employees who would have been given those assignments for the day avoiding the need for overtime. In order to be a successful office you must be fully complemented. When I was finally able to get my office fully complemented my overtime was reduced by 10% Ã¢â¬â 30% as shown in the graph below. The U.S. Postal Service has another formula that we use to gauge an employeeÃ¢â¬ s production. There is a standard based on demonstrated ability. We can not hold Carrier A to Carrier BÃ¢â¬ s standards. This formula is for sorting letters and flats (magazines, newspapers, etc.). The formula allows 1 hour to sort 2 feet of letter mail. This is 2 linear feet, 2 linear feet equals 454 pieces of letter mail or 230 pieces of flat mail. So in order to standardize an employee the manager must count out 2 feet of mail, letters or flats, and calculate the amount of time it takes the employee to sort this mail. The average carrier has no problem at all meeting this quota, but there are those who attempt to outsmart their managers. If the manager is not focused on them during the sorting period there are those carriers who have the tendency to leave their areas to socialize among their coworkers, or Ã¢â¬Å"slow sortÃ¢â¬ their mail. The longer it takes a carrier to sort his mail, the longer it takes that carrier to get out of the office on the street to deliver this mail, making this same carrier late in returning from his assignment guaranteeing this carrier overtime for the day. You multiply this by several carriers in one office daily and you come up with an unaccountable amount of overtime usage as a manager. This affects your production numbers for the office as a whole. This where a manager has to jump in and approach the individual carriers immediately. As a manager I that this has happen to, I have approached the individual and asked some very basic questions to make certain that there are no health or personal issues going on with the carrier affecting their productivity. If nothing out of the ordinary exists, I point out that they are not meeting their productivity quota and make certain suggestions to assist them in meeting their quota. There are those times when you are challenged as a manager to verify your findings. When those situations arise, I go out and measure, with the carrier present, the actual number of feet of mail for them to sort and time them sorting this mail. Once you demonstrate to your employees that you are only expecting from them what is minimally required, and that you will hold them accountable for just that you run into this type of problem less and less. Another major contributor to overtime usage is the actual mail flow itself. Most days this is not a problem, but when it is a problem it is usually a big problem. In Northern Virginia we have two mail distribution centers, one in Merrifield and one in Dulles. For the Falls Church Post Offices, we receive our mail from Merrifield. Each morning we receive 3 dispatches of mail from 6:00 a.m. to 8:30 a.m. When these dispatches are on time everything runs smoothly, but when these dispatches are late an office goes from running smoothly to being hectic. One of the main reasons for a delayed dispatch is the mechanical failure of a mail-processing machine in Merrifield. In preparing itself for the new millenium, the U.S. Postal Service Distribution Centers are equipped with high-tech automated mail processing machines that do the job of ten employees sorting mail. In the event of a mechanical failure, one of our dispatches can be delayed by 1 Ã¢â¬â 2 hours. This 1 Ã¢â¬â 2 hour delay is passed along to my operation in 1 Ã¢â¬â 2 hours of down time for my carriers while they are waiting for their mail to deliver. That equals approximately 1 Ã¢â¬â2 hours of unforeseen overtime per employee that day. As demonstrated in the graph below this is a large usage of overtime for an entire office when calculated. The combination of mail volume and properly scheduled mail dispatches is critical in minimizing overtime. In closing, I would suggest that as we approach a new millenium the U.S. Postal Service would be better served by doing away with some of the older ways of thinking. The Overtime Desired List should be dismantled. This forces managers to go outside of the employees already present for work as a first solution to a vacant assignment list. To me this encourages overtime usage. I would also suggest for offices receiving mail dispatches late at least 3 times a week to move their scheduled time for mail receipt back and bring their carriers in a little later to accommodate for the dispatch schedules. For example if an office has consistently been receiving their dispatches an hour late, instead of having the carriers report to work at 6:30 a.m. they would move the carriers reporting times up to 7:30 a.m. instead eliminating that hour of downtime per person that they are losing.
Thursday, August 15, 2019
Work Motivation Theory and Research at The Dawn Of The Twenty-First Century Based on this journal, the writers examine progress made in theory and research on needs, traits, values, cognition, and affect as well as three bodies of literature dealing with the context of motivation: national culture, job design, and models of person environment fit. They focus primarily on work reported between 1993 and 2003, concluding that goal setting, social cognitive, and organizational justice theories are the three most important approaches to work motivation to appear in the last 30 years.The writers reach 10 generally positive conclusions regarding predicting, understanding, and influencing work motivation in the new millennium. Miner (2003) concluded that motivation continues to hold a significant position in the eyes of scholars. MinerÃ¢â¬â¢s conclusion is based on a comparison with other middle range theories of organizational behavior (OB). The question remains on an absolute standard, m otivation theory and research have fared well over the last quarter of a century.In answering this question, we provide a definition of the construct and an assessment of how the field of motivation in the workplace has evolved and progressed since the year in which the last chapter devoted exclusively to this topic appeared in the Annual Review of Psychology (ARP). We selectively review theory and research, emphasizing work published in the past decade, 1993Ã¢â¬â2003, with special emphasis given to research on contextual effects and mediating mechanisms.Work motivation is a set of energetic forces that originate both within as well as beyond an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s being, to initiate work-related behavior and to determine its form, direction, intensity, and duration (Pinder 1998). where motivation is a process resulting from the interaction between the individual and the environment. However, because of space limitations, the writers just focus on national culture, job design cha racteristics, and person-environment fit, omitting reviews of other exogenous sources of motivation.MOTIVATIONAL FRAMEWORK The framework used in reviewing the literature is consistent with Locke & Henne(1986). Needs is followed by a focus on (b) personal traits. An individual difference variable rooted in needs is (c) values. Because context affects the extent to which needs are met and values are fulfilled, emphasis is given to (d) national culture, (e) job design characteristics, and (f) person context fit. Needs and values affect (g) cognition, particularly goals. Cognition plays an integral role in each of these concepts.Although (h) affective reactions need not depend on cognition (Bandura 1997), the two usually are reciprocally related (Lord & Kanfer 2002). Finally, affect is influenced by culture as well as by organizational norms (Lord & Harvey 2002). We close with an (i) assessment of progress in the field since 1977. NEEDS Aslam et al. (2000) presented a process-based anal ysis of need structure and need salience derived from the social identity approach to organizational behavior.When personal identity is salient, needs to self- actualize and to enhance self esteem through personal advancement and growth become dominant. When social identity is salient, the need to enhance group based self-esteem through a sense of relatedness, respect, peer recognition, and attainment of group goals dominate. They stated that McGregorÃ¢â¬â¢s (1960) Theory Y assumptions apply when the supervisor and employee share the same identity; Theory X assumptions apply when they do not do so. 2 People are motivated to attain goals that are compatible with their self-identity.Needs associated with a specific group membership are internalized; they serve as a guide for behavior in a specific working context. Need-based theories explain why a person must act; they do not explain why specific actions are chosen in specific situations to obtain specific outcomes. Moreover, they d o not easily account for individual differences. Hence, along with increased attention to needs, there has also been a resurgence of interest in individual differences, particularly with regard to the effects of job characteristics on employee motivation.TRAITS In summary, the importance of personality in predicting, understanding, and influencing choice, affect, and performance has been shown, as well as the importance of job characteristics (e. g. , autonomy) as a mediator/moderator. An issue identified by Locke & Latham (2004) that has yet to be addressed is how general variables such as personality are applied to and are mediated by task and situationally specific variables in affecting performance, or how they are moderated by situations and affect situational structuring and choice.Locke (2001) showed that values and personality work through goals and self-efficacy to influence performance. Yet it is likely that some trait effects are direct and thus are not mediated. Research is needed on if, when, and why this occurs VALUES Values are rooted in needs and provide a principal basis for goals (Locke & Henne 1986). Locke & Henne (1986) argued that values are inherent in most work moti- vation theories. These theories focus on the influence of one or several particu- lar values, such as perceptions of fairness on action or on the effects of values in general (expectancy theory).CONTEXT As a result of globalization, however, values have been studied within the context of a personÃ¢â¬â¢s culture and job as well as person-environment fit. National Culture In an attempt to tie together needs and values, Steers & Sanchez-Runde (2002) stated that national culture determines three key sets of distal sources of motivation: (a) peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s self-concept, including personal beliefs, needs, and values; (b) norms about work ethic and the nature of Ã¢â¬Å"achievement,Ã¢â¬ tolerance for ambiguity, locus of control, etc. ; and (c) Ã¢â¬Å"environmental factorsÃ¢â¬ .Based on their conceptual model, the authors concluded that these distal factors influence self-efficacy beliefs, work motivation levels, and goals, as well as the nature of incentives and disincentives to perform. Building on research findings of other scholars, Leung (2001) has offered four hypotheses for further research: (a) work teams in collectivistic cultures have higher levels of unconditional benevolence and positive social identity that, in turn, lead to higher levels of in-group involvement than is the case for groups that value ndividualism; (b) productivity and performance levels are more homogenous (not necessarily higher or lower) in collectivistic cultures than in individualistic cultures; (c) motivational strategies by superiors have more effect on subordinates in cultures with high levels of power distance than in cultures low in power distance; and (d) negative reactions from supervisors in high power-distance cultures generate more negative reactions among wor kers than is the case in low power-distance cultures.Job Design Characteristics Gustafson & Mumford (1995) reported that the ability of personality measures to predict performance as well as satisfaction increases when characteristics of a job are taken into account. Job autonomy can facilitate the time necessary for learning and development, which in turn improves job performance (Wall & Jackson 1995).Cordery (1997) argued the necessity of differentiating the importance of three dimensions of job autonomy, namely (a) method control as defined by the amount of discretion one has over the way in which work is performed, (b) timing control in terms of the influence one has over scheduling of work, and (c) discretion in setting performance goals.He found four interrelated dimensions that affect job autonomy, namely the extent to which the supervisor (a) provides clear attainable goals, (b) exerts control over work activities, (c) ensures that the requisite resources are available, and (d) gives timely accurate feedback on progress toward goal attainment. PERSON CONTEXT-FIT The basic assumption underlying these models is that the relationship between person variables (such as needs or values) and both individual and organizational outcomes is contingent upon various features of the environment (such as the job, the organization, or culture).These models originated from Shaffer's (1953). He used MurrayÃ¢â¬â¢s (1938) needs to develop a goodness-of-fit model that takes into account individual differences in needs as well as the characteristics of jobs. Cable ; DeRue (2002), through a confirmatory factor analysis, found that employees differentiate among three varieties of fit: (a) person-environment fit (in which the focus is on organizational outcomes such as organizational identification and turnover decisions); (b) Ã¢â¬Å"needs-suppliesÃ¢â¬ fit (in which the primary focus is on career-related outcomes such as employee satisfaction) and (c) job demandsÃ¢â¬â employee abilities fit.COGNITION As Locke ; Henne (1986) observed, cognition is inherent in motivation. The sensations of pleasure and pain are informational. Based on needs, values, and the situational context, people set goals and strategize ways to attain them. Goal-Setting Theory A meta-analysis by Zetik ; Stuhlmacher (2002) revealed that negotiators who have specific, challenging, and conflicting goals consistently achieve higher profits than those with no goals. Consistent with goal-setting theory, the higher the goal, the higher the outcome.No effect was found for participation in setting goals. Contextual Conditions Seijts ; Latham (2000b) examined the applicability of goal-setting principles when personal goals are potentially incompatible with those of the group. They found that social dilemmas are boundary conditions for the usual positive effects of goal setting. Self-enhancing personal goals have a detrimental effect on a groupÃ¢â¬â¢s performance. Audia et al. (2000) found that past success increased strategic decision makersÃ¢â¬â¢ satisfaction, and satisfaction led them to increase their past strategies.Higher satisfaction was associated with higher self-efficacy and higher performance goals that increased dysfunctional persistence subsequent to a radical change in the environment. Implementation Intentions and Auto-Motive Goals Gollwitzer (1999) found that goal intentions that are accompanied by implementation intentions on tasks that are complex for people lead to a higher rate of goal attainment than do goal intentions only. An implementation intention is a mental link that is created between a specific future situation and the intended goal-directed response. Thus, it is subordinate to goal intention.Implementation intentions specify when, where, and how behavior is likely to lead to goal attainment. By forming implementation intentions, people strategically switch from conscious effortful control of their goal-directed behavior to being automatically controlled by situational cues. Bargh ; Ferguson (2000) summarized research findings that show that automatic or nonconscious goals produce the same outcomes as conscious goal pursuit in information processing, memory storage, social behavior, and task performance, as well as in self efficacy, self evaluation, and mood state. FeedbackAshford et al. (2003) stated that the processing of feedback likely involves monitoring the environment in an automatic preconscious fashion through visual, auditory, and relational cues. In their enumerative review, Ashford ; Black (1996) also suggested three primary motives for feedback seeking: instrumental to attain a goal and perform well, ego-based to defend or enhance oneÃ¢â¬â¢s ego, and image-based to protect or enhance the impression others have of oneself. Self-Regulation Goal setting and feedback seeking in relation to goals are the core of self-regulation (Latham ; Locke 1991).Self-regulatory processes supporting goal impleme ntation were examined by Gollwitzer ; Bayer (1999). They offered a time perspective on goal striving and self-regulatory processes as mediating the effects of intentions on behavior. The latter consists of four phases: predecisional (choosing among competing wishes, based on expected value); preactional (forming implementation intentions in the service of the goal intention); actional (bringing goal direct actions to a successful end); and postactional (evaluation as to whether further action is necessary)Expectancy Theory After reviewing the literature, Ambrose ; Kulik (1999) concluded that little or no advances have been made in expectancy theory research in the past decade. Ambrose ; Kulik concluded that there are few theoretical or applied reasons for additional research on the application of this theory to organizational behavior Social Cognitive Theory SCT research shows empirically that the effect of environmental antecedents and consequences are mediated by cognitive variabl es.SCT emphasizes dual control systems in the self-regulation of motivation, namely a proactive discrepancy production system that works in concert with a reactive discrepancy reduction system (Bandura 2001). Thus, people are motivated by the foresight of goals, not just the hindsight of shortfalls. A specific high goal creates negative discrepancies to be mastered. Effort and resources are mobilized based on anticipatory estimates of what is necessary for goal attainment. AFFECT/EMOTION Mowday ; Sutton (1993) argued against an overemphasis on cognition in the study of motivation.This is because moods and emotions influence the attainment of complex long-term goals (Lord ; Kanfer 2002) and are interrelated with the other constructs we have discussed. Erez ; Isen (2002) showed that people with higher levels of positive affect exhibited higher levels of persistence, effort, self-reported motivation, and performance on two different tasks. Positive affect was associated with higher lev els of valence and expectancy beliefs at these tasks as well as higher levels of instrumentality beliefs at one of them. Organizational JusticeA significant body of research on work motivation that has appeared since Korman et al. Ã¢â¬â¢s 1977 review is conceptualizations of organizational justice (Greenberg 1987). These studies, based on sociolegal research of disputantsÃ¢â¬â¢ reactions to a conflict resolution, supplement AdamÃ¢â¬â¢s equity theory, the fundamental idea of which is that individuals develop beliefs about the inputs they provide in their employment relationship as well as about the outcomes they receive in return, and they form attitudes about the ratio between inputs and outcomes in relation to the corresponding ratios they perceive among comparison others.The premise of organizational justice is that fair procedures enhance employee acceptance of organizational outcomes. second premise, namely that in addition to being fair, leaders must be perceived as fair with regard to outcomes and processes that serve an important psychological need (Greenberg 1990). CONCLUSIONS First, three theories dominate the motivation literature: goal-setting, social cognitive, and organizational justice. Second, whereas theory and research in the third quarter of the twentieth century focused almost exclusively on cognition (Latham ; Budworth 2004), this is no longer true.Third, the ability to predict, understand, and influence motivation in the workplace has increased significantly as a result of the attention that has been given to all rather than only a few aspects of an employeeÃ¢â¬â¢s motivation. Fourth, whereas the dependent variables historically studied were limited to traditional measures of job performance and satisfaction, todayÃ¢â¬â¢s dependent variables range from citizenship to counterproductive behavior. Fifth, CronbachÃ¢â¬â¢s (1957) plea a half century ago for experimental and correlational psychology to combine forces has been heeded.S ixth, the importance of context to motivation has been recognized much more in recent years than in the past; so much so that an additional chapter could be devoted to it. Seventh, these advances in the study of motivation may reflect the fact that this subject is no longer restricted to the research findings of North Americans. Eighth, behavioral scientists in the latter half of the twentieth century responded positively to William JamesÃ¢â¬â¢ exhortation to systematically study consciousness. Ninth, the antagonisms among theorists that existed throughout much of the twentieth century have either disappeared or have been minimized.Tenth, the nomological nets related to work motivation constructs are thicker and tighter than ever before, but the size of the aggregate net (metaphorically speaking) is not growing at a rate commensurate with the energy that scholars and practitioners have invested since 1977. Accordingly, Steers (2001) recently recognized the limitations of current t heory and research in work motivation, and issued a call for groundbreaking papers for publication in a special edition of the Academy of Management Review in 2004. It is too soon to assess whether any of the papers published in response to his call will