Thursday, October 31, 2019

Article Critique Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1500 words

Critique - Article Example To be specific, the study concentrates on the girls’ accounts of their enculturation into secrecy. These accounts have pertinent value as they disclose how the girls treated secrets as social objects and often depersonalized secrets when using them as social currency. Merten also points out that â€Å"using secrets to shape friendship and enhance social position was part of the larger process whereby secrecy became a vehicle for developing subjective reason and an exchange perspective among these girls.† (Merten, 1999). The study, therefore, specifically concentrates on relating secrecy with enculturation and the findings have immense value in a deeper understanding of the concept of secrecy. The research is undertaken to develop competencies in evaluating qualitative research; develop analytical skills, the approach is investigative, and the result of the study is that the findings are not logical and satisfactory. The research has been conducted in a suburban community near Chicago at junior high school and interviews with 83 female students and 77 male students provided the data for the study. The purpose of the interviews was to find out the various aspects in the lives of the participant students and the importance of events and relationships in their lives. The observational field notes along with the findings of the interview were used to make the investigation in the study. The relevance of the interviews which were open-ended and informal in style was great in making the ultimate conclusion of the research. The accounts of the girls concerning their experience with secrets in their lives were not the result of a natural dialogue. The accounts by the girls, thoug h were mainly influenced by the peers, could give a complete idea about the various aspects relating to secrecy. Throughout the analysis carried out in the research, the methodology had a pertinent role in the findings of the study. The strategy

Tuesday, October 29, 2019

Lesson Plan on the Example of the Elementary School Math Lesson Essay

Lesson Plan on the Example of the Elementary School Math Lesson - Essay Example This is critical because the learning process is a dynamic and involving task which may make one lose focus albeit in a small proportion. It is also important to note and mention that a lesson plan offers a valuable guide to the class to progress and proceed with the learning in any case the tutor or teacher may be absent. This is to say that the lesson plan provides an automatic guide and easy mode of progress even if he or she is a substitute teacher. In principle, the desired result or the total outcome stands to be realized even if the teacher is not physically present to deliver. It is also important to stress the fact that a lesson plan helps the teacher to gauge the positives in the form of a learning outcome with the aim of correcting the negatives (Tomlinson, 2014). This is to say that if by any chance there was something that was well understood by the learners or students, the lesson plan provides a framework for correcting such a situation. Conventionally, lesson plans are unique and different for each and every level of learners. It mentions that the lesson plan for an elementary school cannot be the same lesson plan that would be used for a middle school or a high school learning process. Thus, for the purpose of this essay and exposition, the paper will focus on the notion of an elementary school plan. Specifically, the Elementary School Math lesson: Bundles of Beans: A place value lesson. In principle, this is to say that this exposition will discuss the fundamental principles and tenets of the elementary school learning lesson plan. To begin with, mathematics is an interesting subject that requires a lot of attention from both the teachers and the students before any meaningful and gainful learning would occur. This is the reason as to why it would be critical and imperative to gauge with utmost precision and accuracy the aspect and notion of student  readiness.

Sunday, October 27, 2019

Impact Of The Mega Sport Event On Tourism Tourism Essay

Impact Of The Mega Sport Event On Tourism Tourism Essay There are only two mega sport events namely the FIFA World Cup and the Olympics based on the scale of media interest. It means mega-sport event has unique natures such as outstanding reputation, adequate attention and worldwide scope already. A well-managed mega-sport event such as FIFA World Cup will attracts millions of visitors to a place. The tourism related to mega-sport event can be classified as sport event tourism that Foo L. M (2000) defined sport events tourism as the main purpose of the travel is to take part in an organized sporting activity, either as a spectator, participant or official. For example, the diverse preparations in Sydney for the 2000 Games not only cater for the 11,116 athletes, but also take into consideration the potential tourism inflow from Olympic spectators (which could number in the millions), athletes families, and estimated 15,000 media personnel (Groote, 2005). During the event holding, tourists spend money in related tourism businesses like restaurant, shop and hotel, and they may also visit surrounding tourist destinations and attractions. Obviously, tourism obtains benefits directly and indirectly from mega-sport event; while these benefits are various and long-term. In case of 2000 Sydney Olympics (Australian Tourist Commision, 2001): Visitors to Australia: 406,500 international visitors in September 2000, 15% higher than September 1999 (Australian Bureau of Statistics preliminary data). Worldwide Olympic TV audience: 3.7 billion in 220 countries (IOC) Worldwide Olympic Internet audience: 20 million (IOC) Brand Australia has been advanced by ten years, meaning what the world now knows about Australia, it wouldnt have known until 2010 had Sydney not hosted the Games (ATC). The ATCs media relations program generated an addition A$3.8 billion in publicity for Australia between 1997 and 2000 (ATC) The ATCs partnerships with major Olympic sponsors, such as Visa, McDonalds, Kodak and Coca-Cola generated in additional A$300 million in additional advertising exposure for Australia (ATC). In late 1999, the ATC launched the Australia 2000 fun and games campaign to encourage visitation to Australia in 2000. This was aimed at insuring against avoidance, as had been the experience of other major event host cities and countries. In 2000, visitor arrivals to Australia increased by 10.9% to almost five million according to preliminary Australian Bureau of Statistics figures (ABS). In excess of 100 business events, generating millions of additional export dollars for Australia can be directly attributed to the ATCs New Century. New World, Australia 2001 campaign aimed at capturing business tourism for Australia off the back of the Games. (ATC) etc. Furthermore, Hudson S. (2003) summarized relevant benefits for the host as follows: Major sport events can be catalysts for new facilities and new or improved infrastructure When sport facilities are built, they become permanent event venues Major sport events can be catalysts for attracting training sessions and other types of events, such as meetings and exhibitions There is potential for various sport events year round Sport events can reflect and enhance culture and local traditions, helping to create a unique and attractive sense of place Media coverage and its impact on developing a sport destination image can be more important than actual visitor spending Sport events can assist in destination branding by providing powerful, active lifestyle images and making cultural themes come alive However, hosting a major sports event also has high risks that mainly affect the sustainability of the tourism. For example the Olympic Games of 1976 in Montreal, it was a financial disaster for the city that almost bankrupt (Newton, 2012) and afterwards they were still faced with the financial debts until 2006 (CBC News, 2006). 2.2 Marketing in tourism 2.2.1 Mega-sport event marketing Funk D. C (2008) believed that effective marketing activities are able to shape the image of the city and stimulate the economy for the host; to reach specific target markets and position the destination to non-residents for the tourism marketers; to build community identification and create jobs for governments; to increase brand awareness, launch new products and services, and open new markets for sponsors. In terms of mega-sport event which is in essence experiential, interactive, targeted, and relational; these features are highly relevant and desirable given the modern marketing environment (Crowther, 2011) which can be explained as events create a social setting for attendees and help raise attendees involvement level; therefore, attendees are apt to be more receptive to marketing messages and images associated with the event than they are to those presented via other methods (Pope Voges, 2000; Meenachan Shipley, 1999). Therefore, event marketing is defined as a tool for experiential marketing that focuses on consumer experiences, and treats emotionally and rationally driven consumption as a holistic experience (Vel Sharma, 2010) and it offers an additional advantage, in that it actively engages the consumer with the brand and its personality (Sneath, et al., 2005). 2.2.2 Motivation of sport event tourist MacInnis D. J, Moorman C. Jaworski B. J (1991) defined motivation as an internal factor that arouses and prompts goal-directed behavior. Furthermore, Schiffman L. G Kanuk L. L (2001) detailed a motivation process which includes five stages: needs, tension, drive, want and goal. (Figure 1) Need recognition Goal behavior Want pathway Drive state Tension reductionFigure 1 Sport and event consumer motivation process Source: e.g., Schiffman L. G Kanuk L. L (2001) In the first stage: need recognition, Reisinger (2009) mentioned that potential consumers recognize a need when faced with a problem, we can understand the problem as a catalyst. As mentioned above, the problem of sport event consumer is the desire to seek the experiences. Second stage is the customers are considering how to satisfy this need and at the third stage, people will consider the pathways by their preference to reduce or eliminate the unpleasant state. Want pathway can be considered as decision-making processes and finally the goal behavior which can be understand as the acquisition satisfy peoples need, reduce tension and restore balance. A well-understanding of motivation process will help the marketer to know (Horner Swarbrooke, 2007): When to attempt to influence consumers (focusing marketing activities at the time when most consumers are making decisions to buy a particular product) The choice of advertising media based on which media the majority of consumers use to gain information about tourism products The selection of appropriate distribution channels or marketing intermediaries For example, the VisitBritains strategy for 2012 London Olympic Games focused to inspire visitors to explore Britain (VisitBritain, 2010) As the figure shows, the marketing strategy of VisitBritain focuses Awareness (inspire) and Intention (explore) stages. The marketing challenges are: Inspire: (long-term develop): Address the loss of market share and maximise the value of tourism working with the nations and regions of Britain Develop new product offers to stimulate demand in partnership with the nations and regions Explore: (Britain-led): Gain market share Grow Britain brand awareness Challenge negative perceptions of welcome, value and quality 2.2.3 Marketing strategy related to tourism Foxall (1981) defined marketing strategy as being an indication of how each element of the marketing mix will be used to achieve the marketing objectives. It is simple but easily to understand. Normally, the marketing objectives in tourism of mega-sport event host should be: To maximize the economic benefits for tourism across the host city/country To enhance the image of the host as a visitor destination To deliver- and showcase a world class welcome in and after the event A widely used marketing mix is the 4 Ps that product, price, place and promotion. Product Funk (2008) summarized unique aspects of the mega-sport event product: it is an intangible product; social facilitation via sport and reliance on product extensions. Intangible means it is an experiential product and social facilitation via sport means it has great impacts as mentioned above. However, these features are natural. Therefore, exploring on extension product is the key to stimulate and meet the demands of tourist. Such as UK launched new 50p coins to commemorating the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games (BBC, 2010) and create new travel routes for tourists as an event-related tour products and etc. à ¨Ã‚ ¡Ã‚ Ãƒ §Ã¢â‚¬ Ã… ¸Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ºÃƒ ¥Ã¢â‚¬Å" Ãƒ §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ ©Ã¢â‚¬ Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ ©Ã¢â‚¬ ¡Ã‚ Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¼Ã… ¡Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¦Ã‚ Ã‚ ¥Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ¨Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¤Ãƒ §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ §Ã‚ »Ã‚ Ãƒ ¦Ã‚ µÃ… ½Ãƒ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ¢Ã‹â€ Ãƒ §Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃ…  Ã‚ ¼Ã…’ Furthermore, as sport has the ability to directly and indirectly influences a number of aspects in a persons life (Beaton Funk, 2008), sport marketers are likely to package themselves as the forefront in the battle to improve quality of life as sport and leisure activities become central components of promoting health lifestyles, and building more integrated communities (Funk, 2008). à ¦Ã…  Ã…  Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ »Ãƒ ¥Ã…  Ã… ¾Ãƒ ¥Ã… ¸Ã… ½Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¸Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ½Ã¢â‚¬Å"à ¦Ã‹â€ Ã‚ Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¸Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ªÃƒ ¦-†¦Ãƒ ¦Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ¸Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ºÃƒ ¥Ã¢â‚¬Å" Ãƒ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ Ã‚ ¾Ãƒ ¨Ã‚ ¿Ã¢â‚¬ ºeventà §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ®Ã‚ £Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¼Ã‚  Ãƒ ©Ã¢â‚¬ ¡Ã…’à ¤Ã‚ ¹Ã… ¸Ãƒ ¦Ã‹Å" ¯Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¤Ãƒ ¥Ã… ¾Ã¢â‚¬ ¹Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ½Ã¢â‚¬Å"à ¨Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ²Ãƒ ¦Ã‚ ´Ã‚ »Ãƒ ¥Ã…  Ã‚ ¨Ãƒ §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¸Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ªÃƒ §Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã‚ ¹Ãƒ ¦Ã…“†°Ãƒ §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã¢â‚¬ ¹Ãƒ ¦Ã‚ ®Ã‚ µÃ‚ ¼Ã…’à ©Ã‚ ¦-à ¥Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã‹â€ Ãƒ ¦Ã‹Å" ¯Ãƒ ¥Ã… ¸Ã… ½Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¸Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒ §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ §Ã‚ ²Ã‚ ¾Ãƒ §Ã‚ ¥Ã… ¾Ã‚ ¼Ã…’à ¦-†¡Ãƒ ¥Ã…’- ¼Ã…’à ¦Ã¢â€ž ¢Ã‚ ¯Ãƒ §Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ã‚ ¹Ãƒ §Ã‚ ­Ã¢â‚¬ °Ãƒ §Ã‚ ­Ã¢â‚¬ °Ãƒ £Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ¾Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¾Ã¢â‚¬ ¹Ã‚ ¼Ã…’à ¦Ã‚ ¾Ã‚ ³Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¤Ãƒ ¥Ã‹â€ Ã‚ ©Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ºÃ… ¡Ãƒ §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾brandà ¦Ã… ½Ã‚ ¨Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¹Ã‚ ¿Ãƒ £Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ Price Price can be understood by if it is valuable. Getz and Cheyne (1997) found that focus group participants identified important quality factors that can influence a decision to travel to an event, including reputation of the event, caliber of participants (the best in their field), international scope, and the presence of celebrities, rarity is also a factor. Obviously, mega-sport event has all these factors: outstanding reputation; national caliber; international tourism market; celebrities (NBA stars etc.) and once in four years. As mentioned above, mega-sport tourists pay for an experience which often involves sensory, emotional, cognitive, behavioural and relational values that replace functional values (Schmitt, 1999). A well-managed service system should be marketed to the audience as favourable factor. In adverse, weakness of service will lead tourist doubt to come. For example, a safety doubt emerging after the news that with one week remaining before the opening ceremony of the London Olympics, it only has 4,000 guards trained and ready which was expected to provide over 10,000 security personnel for the event (Bartnik, 2012). à ¨Ã‚ ¿Ã¢â€ž ¢Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ªÃƒ ¤Ã‚ ºÃƒ ¥Ã¢â‚¬Å" Ãƒ ¦Ã…“†°Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¤Ã… ¡Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¤Ãƒ §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ Ã‚ ¸Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¼Ã¢â‚¬ ¢Ãƒ ¥Ã…  Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃ‚ ¼Ã… ¸Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ Ã‚ ¦Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¸Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ ¦- ¹Ãƒ ©Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢Ã‚ ¼Ã…’à ¥Ã‚ ¦Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ½Ã¢â‚¬ ¢Ãƒ ¦Ã¢â‚¬ °Ã¢â‚¬Å"à ¦Ã‚ ¶Ã‹â€ Ãƒ ¦-†¦Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ®Ã‚ ¢Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ »Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ ©Ã‚ ¡Ã‚ ¾Ãƒ ¨Ã¢â€ž ¢Ã¢â‚¬ËœÃ‚ ¼Ã… ¸Ãƒ ©Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃ¢â‚¬ ¦Ãƒ ¥Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ã‚ ¸Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¥Ã‚ ¥Ãƒ ¨Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¼Ã… ¡Ãƒ §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ ¦Ã‚ Ã‚ Ãƒ ¦Ã¢â€š ¬-à ¤Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ »Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¹Ã¢â‚¬ °Ãƒ ¥Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃ‚ ½Ãƒ ©Ã¢â€ž ¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ãƒ §Ã… ½Ã‚ ¯Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¢Ã†â€™ Place It refers to the place where the customers can buy the product and how the product reaches out to that place. The most effective way is media such as Internet, PR and TV. Many scholars believe that media coverage of sport events will help countries to present themselves in favorable terms (Whitson Macintosh, 1996), and will assist destinations in building a positive image that helps to generate future tourist demand (Faulkner et al., 2000). à ¤Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ºÃƒ ¤Ã‚ ºÃ¢â‚¬  Ãƒ ¨Ã‚ ¦Ã¢â‚¬  Ãƒ §Ã¢â‚¬ º-à ¦Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃ‚ ´Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¹Ã‚ ¿Ãƒ §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ ¨Ã…’Æ’Ã ¥Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃ‚ ´Ã‚ ¼Ã…’à ¥Ã‚ ¯Ã‚ ¹Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ºÃ… ½Ãƒ ¥Ã¢â‚¬ ºÃ‚ ½Ãƒ ©Ã¢â€ž ¢Ã¢â‚¬ ¦Ãƒ ¥Ã…’-à §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¸Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒ ¥Ã…“ ºÃƒ ¦Ã… ½Ã‚ ¨Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¹Ã‚ ¿Ã‚ ¼Ã…’à §Ã‚ ½Ã¢â‚¬ËœÃƒ §Ã‚ »Ã…“à ¥Ã‚ ¼Ã¢â€š ¬Ãƒ ¥Ã¢â‚¬ ¹Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ Ã‹Å"à ¥Ã‚ ¾-à ¨Ã‚ ¶Ã…  Ãƒ ¦Ã‚ Ã‚ ¥Ãƒ ¨Ã‚ ¶Ã…  Ãƒ ©Ã¢â‚¬ ¡Ã‚ Ãƒ ¨Ã‚ ¦Ã‚ Ã‚ ¼Ã…’ Social media such as Facebook, Flickr and TripAdvisor are increasingly being exploited within mega-sport event marketing campaigns. For example, Facebook has more than 300 million active users, 50% of whom log on everyday. The internet provides a worldwide platform to distribute the information. Recently emerging channel is mobile. According to VisitBritain (2010), 400m are already using the mobile internet and this will double by 2012; 87% of people are already using their mobile for media consumption at home, and 2012 London Olympic Games became the first mobile internet Games. Development of technology help marketers delivers the information more effective, however, traditional media still important such as newspaper, which are still widely used by old peoples; TV, which covers lots of computer illiterate and broadcast, which can reach the people who have no time to look such as taxi driver. Promotion Promotion is the business of communication to the customers such as what benefits the company or organization has to offer rather than exhibit the features. Hosting the mega-sport events means a valuable promotion opportunity as it can improving a destinations image and building a destinations brand for sustainable development (Getz, 1997; Hall, 1992; Jago, et al., 2010; Prentice Andersen, 2003; Ritchie, 1984) . This means that the city can show off its tourist attractions and the infrastructure that has been generated (Chalip, 2002; Owen, 2005; Whitson Horne, 2006). Awareness of the region is also positively impacted which again brings in domestic and international tourists and potential investors (Gursoy Kendall, 2006; Solberg Preuss, 2007). For example, in a study examining the effect of special events on a countrys brand building, Jun and Lee (2008) reported a positive relationship between the role of special events on the attitudes of young Korean students towards Germany, specifically, the more exposure Korean students had to special events held in Germany, the more likely they were to form positive attitudes toward Germany. These findings supported Chalip and Costas (Chalip Costa, 2005)general theory that special events can be an extension of a destination brand or can be promoted as certain features of destination brand. Political support à §Ã‚ ­Ã‚ ¾Ãƒ ¨Ã‚ ¯Ã‚ Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ -à ©Ã¢â€ž ¢Ã‚ Ãƒ §Ã‚ ­Ã¢â‚¬ °Ãƒ £Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡Ãƒ ¦Ã‚ ¾Ã‚ ³Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¤Ãƒ ¥Ã‹â€ Ã‚ ©Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ºÃ… ¡Ãƒ §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ ¦Ã… ½Ã‚ ¨Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¹Ã‚ ¿Ãƒ ¦Ã‹â€ Ã‚ Ãƒ ¦Ã… ¾Ã…“à £Ã¢â€š ¬Ã¢â‚¬Å¡ 2.3 Destination service quality Even though marketing strategy is well managed, tourists experience of a hotel, restaurant, or casino will imparts a different sort of knowledge than simply reading or hearing about it (La Tour, et al., 2009). Destination management includes how competition in tourism increasingly involves geographical systems where suppliers of hospitality, transportation, entertainment, and cultural services collaborate to increase the attractiveness of the destination and improve its ability to acquire customers (Bieger, 1998; Bieger, 2000; Buhalis, 2000; Ritchie Crouch, 2000; Go Crompton, 2000). Event managers are often preoccupied with delivering a high quality program (Getz, 1998), which is basically what visitors come to experience, but equal attention to service quality is essential for ensuring visitor satisfaction. SA Tourism (2008) concedes to the following ten challenges for 2010: 1) poor access to channels of tourism information, 2) insufficient accommodation, and 3) compelling attractions and activities, 4) inadequate service levels and skills shortage, 5) inadequate public transport, 6) insufficient focus on tourist safety and security, 7) limited institutional capacity, 8) managing expectations, 9) demand management and 10) displacement of general tourists. In the public eyes, hosting an event is a stimulator of tourism industry to the host city. Fourie and Santana-Gallego (2011) did a research on the impact of mega-sport events on tourist arrivals and resulted at there will be 8% increase of the arrivals on average to the host. The Olympics and FIFA World Cup are more than the average. For instance, by the data from ForwardKeys (2012), bookings made by 12th May show a 13% increase in the expected number of arrivals to London during the Olympics Periods and the rest of UK also receive 4% increase. Such a rapidly inflow of tourists will bring lots of problems such as transport disasters. Atlantas 1996 Olympic Game has provided a cautionary tale of mega-sport event travel chaos: with bus drivers getting lost, athletes arriving moments before their events and overloaded trains that couldnt get residents home (Wheatley, 2011). Therefore, how to provide quality destination service to tourists experience, while an influx occurs during the mega-sport event is one of the key factors of the successful tourism operation in mega-sport tourism marketing. Gronroos (1983) described service quality construct relates the level of experienced quality to both technical and functional dimensions of serve provision (see figure 10.1): Technical quality refers to the result of the service and/or the question, what has been provided? Functional quality on the other hand, refers to the way the service has been delivered and relates to the question, how has the service been provided? 2.3.1 Technical quality Technical quality refers to the relatively quantifiable aspects of the service such as The hotel guest will get a room and a bed to sleep in, the consumer of a restaurants services will get a meal, and the train passenger will be transported from one place to anotherà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (Gronroos, 1984). In terms of mega-sport event, as influx of tourists, the capability of original infrastructure is not able to meet the needs. That is why Terret (2008) mentioned cities are interested in hosting of the Olympics Games as they can accelerate infrastructure projects. For example, Olympic experience shows that a highly robust and resilient public transport system is a prerequisite to handle exceptional Olympic mega event traffic demands (Bovy, 2006). In terms of London, it struggles with constraints on the Tube, which handles 12 million trips a day during normal times and the Olympics is estimated to add three million trips on the busiest days (Kirka, 2012). Therefore, it invested  £80m in permanent transport improvements for DLR (Media centre Press release, 2008), we have seen new rail links created in East London, and improvements to existing underground and overground train services (Pettinger, 2009) and the increase of capability achieved that a train arriving in the Olympic Park area every 15 seconds (London Olympics Transport Upgrade, 2012). This improvement will shorten the time that tourist move in and out the Olympic Park and reduce the crowd risk. In other hand, a strong public transport will also encourage tourist to choose so that avoid general car traffic on the primary Olympic transport network accordingly. 2.3.2 Functional quality Local human resource support Functional quality creates a competitive edge by focusing on the more personal aspects of the service encounter such as The accessibility of a teller machine, a restaurant or a business consultant, the appearance and behavior of waiters, bank tellers, travel agency representatives, bus drivers, cabin attendants, business consultants, plumbers, how these service firm employees perform, what they say and how they say it do also have an impact on the customers view of the serviceà ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦ (Gronroos, 1984) In terms of mega-sport event, a special group volunteers was critical to the successful staging of mega-event because they provided the substantial amount of unpaid additional labour that was needed and also the outstanding service that help the tourists. For example, in Beijing 2008 Olympic games, there were 70,000 volunteers (Associated Press, 2007) applied in various positions such as translation and interpretation, protocol and reception, contest organization, food and beverage, medical services, security and transportation et al (Volunteer Positions Requirements, 2008). To ensure the service quality of the volunteer, a series of training was made before volunteers officially starting their services. In terms of Beijing 2008 Olympic Game, the training includes 4 parts (Organization and Administration of Olympic Volunteering, 2008) 1. General training: basic Olympic knowledge, brief introduction to the Beijing Olympic and Paralympic Games, Chinese history and traditional culture, history and cultural life in Beijing, knowledge and skills necessary to serve the disabled, etiquette norm, medical knowledge and first-aid skills. 2. Professional training: professional knowledge and skills required in voluntary services. 3. Venue training: venue functions, knowledge concerning the sports held in the venue, internal facilities, organizational structure, rules and regulations. 4. Job training: job responsibilities, specific work, business procedures, and operating norms. These well-trained volunteers helped the foreign visitors overcome language and cultural barriers, and provide professional service so that enhance the satisfaction of tourists experience in great extent and assist Olympic Games operating smoothly. However, Bejou et al. (1996) mentioned that there are non-standardized services in which the knowledge, behavior and commitment of the service providers are crucial. Oneil et. al. (1999) believe that this experiential product (such as event) is produced and consumed simultaneously, is highly heterogeneous and very difficult to store and/or control, but basically, if expectations are met, service quality is perceived to be satisfactory; if unmet, less than satisfactory; if exceeded, more than satisfactory. In contrary, poor events may causes by such as an emphasis on quantity rather than quality, a product rather than a market orientation, poor physical conditions and lack of information, and poorly selected or inadequately trained personnel (Jackson Schneider, 1990). 2.4 Sustainable tourism development The evaluation of the sustainability impacts of any mega-sport event is a complex and difficult task and it involves far more than simply estimating its potential revenue and expenditure (Dodouras James, 2004). As hosting a mega-sport event can also constituted a unique opportunity for the diversification and enrichment of the hosts tourism product, this legacy will benefit the tourism development in the future. For example, the building of tourism infrastructure in the case of Barcelona significantly enhanced its image and credibility as an international tourist destination (Duran, 2005). Musgrave Raj (2009) summarized the three sustainable aspects that influenced by mega-sport event as Figure 1: Mega-sport Events Social Environmental Economic Positive: Induced development and construction expenditure Long-term promotional benefits Civic pride Community development Increased employment opportunities Positive: Raising awareness of environmental issues Development of waste land Long-term conservation of area Positive: Direct/indirect expenditure Increased property value due to regeneration Additional trade and business development Induced development and construction expenditure Event product extensions Negative: Future use of infrastructure not maximized Interruption of normal business Resident exodus Disruption of lifestyle Media impacts Community apathy and antagonism Increased risk of security issues Unequal distribution of wealth Negative: Site/location damage short- and long-term Waste and pollution Noise pollution Traffic disruption and congestion Increase in energy demands and other natural resources Negative: Cost of event failure to local/national economy Inflated price of products, services and amenities Unequal distribution of wealth Fig. 1. 1. The three pillar impacts of events (Musgrave Raj, 2009) Consequently, the objectives of sustainable development are: optimizing socio-cultural impacts; minimizing environmental impacts and maximizing economic impacts (Smith-Christensen, 2009). Specifically, in terms of tourism, these impacts can be operationalized in the post-event period to attain, magnify and sustain their objectives as a sustainable sport tourism legacy. And accordingly, the sustainability of strategies that originate from sport tourism development policies, which according to sustainable development principles should maintain economic efficiency, social equity, and environmental integrity (Campell, 1996; Fitzgerald Leigh, 2002). 2.4.1 Social impact By social impacts we mean the consequences to human populations of any public or private actions that alter the ways in which people live, work, play, relate to one another, organize to meet their needs and generally cope as members of society. The term also includes cultural impacts involving changes to the norms, values, and beliefs that guide and rationalize their cognition of themselves and their society (Interorganizational Committee on Guidelines and Principles, 1994). To achieve the outcome that optimizing socio-cultural impact, the organizer should reduce the negative impacts and magnify the positive impacts. Tassiopoulos Johnson (2009) summarized the social impacts that brought by event tourism as follow: Negative impacts of tourism: Sex The sexual industry has grown rapidly rely on the mega-sport event due to some event attendees travel abroad to enjoy uninhibited casual sexual encounters and result on a bad impact of the local. For example, as many as 40,000 women could enter South Africa to work as prostitutes during this years football World Cup 2010 (The Telegraph, 2010). The grave danger of this growth has led to the spreading of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (Cooper, et al., 2005). Health There are diseases such as swine flu should be noted when people from different countries interact. For example, the recording of more than 8500 cases of malaria infections in the UK, which have been a result of tourist and visiting friends and relatives (VFT) traffic to malaria-infected destinations. These diseases may not fatal but they can cause social and economic stress to the host community. Commodification Commodification implies that the demands of tourism (inclusive of events) have led to the mutation and sometimes the destruction of the meaning of cultural performances and special events. Staged authenticity refers to simulated experiences that are developed to satisfy the needs of the visitor. Standardization refers to where the visitor attending an event searches for the familiar, leading to a loss of cultural diversity (Cooper, et al., 2005). Disruption of lifestyle of residents Sherwood (2007) refers to increases in traffic and noise and the general disruption to normal daily routines caused by the hosting of an event in the destination. Furthermore, overcrowding, congestion and noise are ascribed to an influx of event visitors in the host destination. This may cause that resident exodus, for instance, third of Britons holidaying abroad this summer have deliberately chosen dates to avoid London 2012 (Gerges, 2012). Crime and vandalism Many scholars such as Mathieson and Wall (1982) have suggested that large numbers of visitors to an event carrying relatively large amounts of money and valuables with them will provide a source for illegal activities including drug trafficking, robbery, vandalism and violence. For example, only 10 weeks before the FIFA World Cup 2010, in South Africa, there were 50 murders happened in one day while the South Africas murder rate actually dropped slightly last year (Tay, 2010). Positive impacts of tourism: The fostering of community/civic pride Events can be used to put new life into ceremonies and rituals, making them come alive, combining them with skills and crafts. This can inspire and assist with fostering local pride of a host community and provides the best possible experience for the event attendee (Tassiopoulos Johnson, 2009). Creating sociocultural awareness and peace Events take people to new places and can broaden their understanding and knowledge of other cultures and environments. This can be regarded as an educational process and, if channeled properly, this education can lead to greater awareness of, and sympathy and admiration for, other societies. Cultural exchange that takes place between the event attendee and the host community can assist in fostering peace. The belief in the relationship between tourism and peace is so strong that in 1986 the International Institute for Peace through Tourism was set up. Shared infrastructure When developments for events take place, for example, the FIFA 2010 World Cup in South Africa, the local infrastructure is often enhanced to meet the needs of the developments. The host community can find that the quality of their life is enhanced through being able to enjoy this improved infrastructure. This type of infrastructure can include upgrading sporting venues, improvement of airports and general transportation. Direct sociocultural support The funding generated from various events can provide funds to assist to restore heritage sites, conserve natural and cultural sites, or assist local charities. The proceeds earned from these events in terms of registration fees and goods sold are donated to various charities within the local community. 2.4.2 Environmental impact The environmental impact indicates that (Mathieson Wall, 1982; Jenner Smith, 1991; Boers Bosch, 1994; Puczko Ratz, 2002; 2005): Impacts on the natural environment, i.e. air quality, geological factors, water quality, depletion of natural resources, flora and fauna; Impacts on the man-made environment, i.e. buildings visual impacts, changes in land use, infrastructure; Impacts on the ecosystem. The depletion of natural resources is accelerated by the use of fossil fuels in transportation, the heating of accommodation and the operation of catering facilities (which are usually non-renewable energy sources like coal, crude oil or natural gas). In more environment-friendly solutions, heating and energy consumption is based on hydro, solar or wind energy. Wasteful and careless use of the drinking water supply significantly impairs the effectiveness of water management, and decreases available freshwater resources. The wasteful use of the water supply could be avoided by a more environmentally friendly attitude and modern technology. The positive elements of the environmental impacts most commonly catalogued relate to the new facilities that might not have been politically or financially feasible without the event. On the negative side, growing attention is being focused on the environmental damage due to development for mega sports events (Tolios, 1997). 2.4.3 Economic impact Event tourism can generate positive economic impacts, in addition to longer-term place marketing benefits and media exposure for destination, along with sporting or cultural policy benefits (Musgrave Raj, 2009). à ¤Ã‚ ºÃ‚ ºÃƒ ¤Ã‚ »Ã‚ ¬Ãƒ §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ ¨Ã…  Ã‚ ±Ãƒ ©Ã¢â‚¬ Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¼Ã…’à ¦Ã…  Ã¢â‚¬ ¢Ãƒ ¨Ã‚ µÃ¢â‚¬Å¾Ã‚ ¼Ã…’à ¥Ã‚ ·Ã‚ ¥Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ½Ã…“à ¥Ã‚ ²-à ¤Ã‚ ½Ã‚ Ãƒ §Ã‚ ­Ã¢â‚¬ °Ãƒ §Ã‚ ­Ã¢â‚¬ °Ãƒ ¥Ã‚ ¥Ã‚ ½Ãƒ §Ã… ¡Ã¢â‚¬Å¾Ãƒ ¦- ¹Ãƒ ©Ã‚ Ã‚ ¢Ã‚ ¼Ã…’à ¤Ã‚ ¸Ã‚ ¾Ãƒ ¤Ã‚ ¾Ã¢â‚¬ ¹ While these impacts are extremely relevant and often very important, an honest assessment of the value of a particular mega sports event must also include estimates of the negative impacts, such as commodity price increases a

Friday, October 25, 2019

Alcohol and Drinking - Alcoholism :: Exploratory Essays Research Papers

Alcoholism It was a rainy Wednesday afternoon and little Tommy was struggling to cross the slippery puddle- filled streets. The crossing guard at the corner felt a tug at her leg and it was Tommy waiting to cross. He waited patiently at the corner until traffic seemed to clear. The crossing guard began to lead Tommy across the street when out of nowhere a car sped around the corner and without acknowledging the crossing pedestrians, ended little Tommyà ¾s life. Tommyà ¾s parents were called at work and notified of the horrible accident. Through all the gory details they received the same awful truth that is heard by millions every year, Tommy had been killed by a drunk driver. Alcoholism is an epidemic in America that affects the lives of many. Alcoholism, as a disease, affects the individual, the family, and society as a whole. Families are torn apart, domestic violence occurs, and innocent bystandersà ¾ lives can be changed forever, just like little Tommyà ¾s. Drunk driving is just one of the many issues involving the abuse of alcohol. Alcohol abuse can lead to further drug and substance dependence. On the individual, alcohol damages bodily processes and organs, and affects personality and temperament. An approach to treating this serious illness is group therapy and individual counseling. The severity of the problem and the willingness of the patient will determine the extent of treatment he or she will undergo. Though there are many aspects of alcoholism, a major issue at hand is whether or not alcoholism is a genetically inherited disease. Through research studies and surveys, it is evident that alcoholism is, in fact, genetically inherited. Genetic makeup is not the only factor, however. Environmental influences can foster genes and motivate a person to drink. Many people drink due to a neurological imbalance (which causes a psychological disorder). Others use alcohol as an outlet to their daily stresses. There is even a group of people who become alcoholics with an unknown motive. Alcoholism is a disease with many dimensions. This disorder begins as early as childhood and elevates throughout adolescence to its prime stage in adulthood. The early years are the crucial determination point. If a child grows up with constant exposure to alcohol, they will most likely pattern their behavior after the role model. This is how the whole cycle continues. It is unfortunate that so many Americans a re affected by this disease and they are not even aware of it.

Thursday, October 24, 2019

Computers Are Necessary Part of Daily Life Essay

Computers are the necessary part of modern life. It is really true. It is very difficult to imagine our life without modern devices and especially without computers. The main thing it is of course Internet. It is the ocean of information. Information about all spheres of life, scientific, cultural, political etc. Internet is very important for us students. It is the source of information for compositions, reports, control papers. Sometimes our teachers want us to do it ourselves but we used to do it with the help of computers and canR17;t imagine ourselves going to the libraries as our parent did. Computers can help to find people who seemed to be lost forever. The example can be such web sites as and VcontacteR30; My mum found her classmates that finished the school 20 years ago and her friends from OdessaUniversity. As for me I spend all my spare in time in contacts, speaking with friends not only from Odessa but for example from Canada. Also I know that if my dads want to know something about medicines they also use Internet and different web sites. Different studying programs are also useful; I like to use to make my translations easier and faster. But of course there is another side of medal. Internet takes more time that many of us can allow. It is sometimes replace books, theatres and alive communication. We begin to forget that it is more better to communicate with our friends not only in online mode but to go together to have fun, or may be it is better to read interesting book then playing computer games where people kill each other on very high speed. Of course our 21 century is the century of technical progress. We canR17;t live as our grandma and grandpa, but we had to remember that everything must have its logical boarders and never computers, modern devices, Internet; games can replace people, their relations, love, friendship and real life.

Wednesday, October 23, 2019

Son of God

Page 1 Marrisa Lumia Jesus Across the Millennium March 29, 2012 Jesus: The Son of God A meaning behind a name can be very significant. It can be a way to interpret someone, describe him or her, and see who he or she really is. Jesus is a man who has numerous names and various meanings to them. He is the known as a teacher, a famous prophet, a miracle worker, and a wonderful example. One significant name that Jesus is known for is the Son of God. At the heart of the Nicene Creed it states â€Å" the only- begotten Son of God†. The Son of God is to be of the same nature as God and the Son of God is â€Å"of God†.Out of all the names for Jesus, Son of God has had one of the most lifelong impacts in Christian history and has become part of the profession of faith by many Christians. But according to the theological view, Jesus is known as a respected prophet, but not as the Son of God. The Son of God is extremely significant in the historical context, Christianity, and to t he theological view. What exactly does the Son of God mean? Literally speaking, it does not mean that God procreated him, it is much more spiritual than that. Jesus was â€Å"chosen to be† the â€Å"Son of God† by the Resurrection from the dead.This was not in human flesh, but by the power of the Holy Spirit. This means because of the Resurrection from the dead, Jesus Page 2 was not just another physical offspring of David. Jesus was the divine Son of God who went sent down from God to save us. There is disagreement about Jesus’ nature and his relationship with God the Father. Many believe in the trinity and use expressions God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Spirit in attempts to express this saying as all three persons. On the other hand, many believe that there is only one highest being who expressed Himself in three different ways.They believe that the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit are purely forms of God. While others trust that God is the o nly divine being and that Christ is only a created being. It is taught in the Bible that the Messiah was Jesus, whose â€Å"mortal† parents were Joseph and Mary of Nazareth. Jesus was a man who lived a sinless life and then gave His life on the cross in order to redeem mankind from their sins. According to John 1:11-12, â€Å"He came to His own, and those who were His own did not receive Him. But as many as received Him, to them He gave the right to become children of God, even to those who believe in His name. The historical view of Jesus had many names and meanings, but in the Scriptures Christians referred to Jesus as the Son of God. In both the Old and New Testament Jesus was referred to as the Son of God. In the Old Testament Son of God is recurrent. According to NewAdvent. org , the word â€Å"son† was used by many of the Semites to represent close connection or intimate relationship. A hero or warrior was known as the â€Å"son of strength†, a wicked man â€Å"son of wickedness†, and a possessor â€Å"son of possession†. In the Old Testament the label â€Å"Son Page 3 of God† was applied to persons having any special relationship with God.The title â€Å" Sons of God† were referred to as Angels, leaders of the people, kings, princes, and judges because they withheld authority from God. In the Old Testament, Jesus was not only known as the Son of God but he was also called Emmanuel (which means God with us), Wonderful, God the Mighty, Prince of Peace, Counselor, the Father of the world to come. In the New Testament, the Son of God is referred to Jesus Christ in both the Gospels and Epistles. By expressing His Divinity this shed light on many of the meanings attached to passages of the Gospels.In the New Testament, an angel announced: â€Å"He shall be great, and shall be called the Son of the most High†¦ the Holy which shall be born of thee shall be called the Son of God† (Luke 1:32, 35). Also it states that Nathaniel, at his first meeting, called Him the Son of God (John 1:49). Ironically the Devils and Jews also referred to Him as the Son of God. In each one of these cases, the meaning of Son of God was equivalent to the Messiah. A puzzling question from the theological standpoint that raised conflict was, â€Å"How could Jesus be The Son of God, and God at the same time? The question has been on the minds of many Theologists for centuries. Christian theology depends on the Father-Son language to correctly describe the connection between Jesus and God. For thousands of years, Christians have believed that there is one God, and three persons: the Father, the Son, and the Holy Spirit, each of them being one with God. According to Christian theology, there is a problem with the doctrine of trinity. The doctrine states that there is precisely one God; which means that the Father is God, the Son is God, and the Spirit is God; and that Father, Son, and Spirit are separate.T his could mean that ‘is God’ Page 4 either means ‘is identical God’ or ‘is divine’. Either way there is a problem to this puzzle. One way it opposes the doctrine is if the Father is equal to God and the Son is equal to God, then it would conclude that the Father is identical to the Son. Another way this opposes the doctrine is if the Father is divine and the Son is divine and the Father is separate from the Son, then there are at least two divine persons, which means there would be two Gods. According to theology, either way the doctrine would be missing pieces to its puzzle.Jesus was a man of wonder with many names and meanings to them. He was known for being a teacher, a famous prophet, a miracle worker, and a wonderful example. One significant name that Jesus was known for is the Son of God. Throughout Christian history the title Son of God has had a lifelong impact on Christian and became part of their profession of faith. The development o f the theological view was very different. Jesus maybe known as a respected prophet, but he was not as the Son of God. The title of Jesus as the Son of God is very significant.He is a man of glorious wonder and faith. Although through the theologists eyes Jesus maybe the Son of God but is not God himself. But in the historical view and the Bible, the Son of God is extremely significant and respected. Page 5 Bibliography Dunn, James Douglas Grant. , and Scott Mcknight. â€Å"Chapter 4. † The Historical Jesus in Recent Research. Winona Lake, Ind: Eisenbrauns, 2005. 271+. Print Borg, Marcus J. , and N. T. Wright. The Meaning of Jesus: Two Visions. [San Francisco, CA]: HarperSanFrancisco, 1998. Print.Aherne, Cornelius. â€Å"Son of God. † The Catholic Encyclopedia. Vol. 14. New York: Robert Appleton Company, 1912. 13 Apr. 2012 http://www. newadvent. org/cathen/14142b. htm Dunn, James Douglas Grant. , and Scott Mcknight. â€Å"Chapter 4. † The Historical Jesus in Rec ent Research. Winona Lake, Ind: Eisenbrauns, 2005. 271+. Print â€Å"Son of God. † Wikipedia. Wikimedia Foundation, 04 Dec. 2012. Web. 13 Apr. 2012. . Murray, Michael, and Michael Rea. â€Å"Philosophy and Christian Theology. † (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy). Web. 13 Apr. 2012.

Tuesday, October 22, 2019

Minimal Pairs Pronunciation Lesson

Minimal Pairs Pronunciation Lesson Minimal pairs are pairs of words that have one phonemic change between them. For example: let and lit. Using these pairs to help students recognize the minor differences between English muted vowel sounds can greatly help not only pronunciation skills, but also comprehension. Aim Improve pronunciation and recognition skills Activity The use of minimal pairs to help students distinguish minor differences between English vowel sounds Level Pre-intermediate to upper-intermediate depending on students capabilities Outline Introduce the idea of minimal pairs by writing a list on the board of a number of minimal pairs. For example: but - boot, sit - set, caught - cut, sing - song, etc.Practice comprehension skills by using the provided lists of minimal pairs. Each list contains one minimal pair with a number of examples.Once students are comfortable with the sounds, read sentence examples (for example: The call took a long time to go through - for the first pair) using one word of the pair provided. Ask students to identify which word of each pair was used.Continue using the list of pairs by asking students to practice the lists.Ask students to identify two vowel sounds which they want to focus on, for example: eh and uh, and have them create their own list of minimal pairs.Have pairs exchange lists and practice reading the others lists aloud.If appropriate, continue lesson by a more extended look into the IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet, see IPA Lesson) Back to lessons resource page

Monday, October 21, 2019

Essay on White Fang

Essay on White Fang Essay on White Fang This is a free sample essay on White Fang: The portrayal of the child figure is represented in the three novels Black Beauty, The Jungle Books, and White Fang. The use of this motif allows the audience to view the transformation of â€Å"children† into mature beings. In these novels, we watch Black Beauty, Mowglii, and White Fang grow from unshaped, unknowing beings primarily through the guidance of character who are not even their real parents but serve as mother figures. These characters (Beauty, Mowglii, and White Fang) learn the â€Å"rules† of their environment from many different characters and sources throughout the novel. These experiences (both positive and negative) in which they utilize what they know and grow from their mistakes (or misfortunes) are what helps in the rearing and guidance of the child figures on their path of learning. In all three novels, the reader is introduced to the child figures (Black Beauty, Mowglii, and White Fang) really at the beginning of their life. The only possible exception here is that you don’t know initially where Mowglii came from but this introduction is at the beginning of his life in the jungle. This portrayal of the child allows that reader to see them as the naÐ ¿ve clean slates they are, waiting for guidance and education. In Black Beauty, Beauty is portrayed from birth as a valuable addition to the farm and is named for his striking appearance. This ideal impression of the child figure conveys to the reader that although things are good now for this little colt, he will inevitably face hardships during his transformation that will shape him into a truly valuable being. In The Jungle Books, Mowglii is initially portrayed as a happy-go-lucky man cub who isn’t intimidated the least by his new surroundings. This confidence and fearlessness sets the scene for th e leader that Mowglii will become at the end of his transformation into adulthood. After being accepted into the wolf pack, he is nicknamed â€Å"frog†. This title is representative of the changes he will undergo throughout his adventures. It clearly indicates that Mowglii will become a new being. In the novel White Fang, White Fang is introduced almost immediately as the strongest of the litter. This child figure representation is yet again one that predicts the future of the being. This portrayal of White Fang as strong, aggressive and independent carries through to his adulthood as he gains the reputation for being one of the most savage dogs of the North. The difference here between The Jungle Books and White Fang is the initial portray of white Fang is not reflective of the mature caring dog he becomes. It is interesting to note here that although it seemed White Fang’s fate to become a savage wild beast, he in the end becomes a domesticated house pet with the proper compassion and guidance from his determined master, Weedon Scott. In these three novels, each of the characters portraying the child figure is educated about the ways of their world not only verbally, but also by their life experiences (or predicaments). In Black Beauty, Beauty really doesn’t face much of the conflict or harsh realities of the world outside his rosy picture. His seems to represent a protected child initially. He notices how his barn mate, Ginger, misbehaves and wonders how she could that way with such a giving and caring master. He is at the immature point in his life where he doesn’t realize that there is life outside of his own homestead. Even when Ginger tells Beauty of some of her life experiences and how they have shaped the â€Å"person† that she is today, Beauty can only sympathize. He cannot be fully affected by these realities until he, himself is exposed to them. Although he has had second hand exposure from Gingers tales, he cannot learn the lessons and change as a being unless he experiences life fo r himself. In The Jungle Books, Mowglii is protected by Bagheera, the black panther, and is taught the laws of the jungle by Baloo, the brown bear. Although it seems Mowglii is equipped with what he needs to make it in his new world, he faces many dangers of which only he can attempt to avoid. Mowglii has been provided the information of right and wring in the jungle, now it is up for this child to use his smarts to survive. After all, he is sought after by the jungle bully, Shere Khan, who wants Mowglii dead if for no other reason but to regain some of his own pride. The audience sees Mowglii’s transformation as a naÐ ¿ve child to an aggressive member of his society to a compassionate leader of his own people. This only occurs after the child figure obeys the laws of the jungle and utilizes what he has learned. In White Fang, the transformation of the child figure from a savage wolf to a civilized dog is remarkable. White Fang was reared to fend for himself. Although he also had this innate sense as he is three-quarters wolf, he was surrounded by experiences (whether it was famine or brutal fights) that taught him that it was the way of the wild to â€Å"eat or be eaten†. It seemed throughout most of this novel this â€Å"wild child† had no chance of ever being tamed. Ironically, it is the harsh environments that White Fang is exposed to (by the way of Gray Beaver and Beauty Smith), that help him in his transformation from the aggressive wolf to the house pet. Through the harsh guidance of Gray Beaver, White Fang learns obedience, work ethic and loyalty to his master, traits he would have never acquired if he had just lived in the wild. It is arguable, however, that White Fang didn’t necessarily need to be subjected to such harsh treatments become the Beloved Wolf. On t he other hand, these experiences allowed him to appreciate the care he received from his most humane master, Weedon Scott. It is after all, through the patience, understanding, and dedication of Scott that White Fang evolves from a savage wild child into a domestic family dog. Children are a product of their environment. This explanation is used even today to describe why people behave the way that they do. This idea is present in the novels discussed previously as well as in other works of 19th century children’s literature. You see in â€Å"The Little Match Girl† from Andersen’s Fairy Tales, how the poor pathetic child is reduced to keeping herself warm by lighting the matches that she is supposed to be selling. This account is a direct reflection of the pathetic world she was raised in. This exploitation of the child results in her untimely death. In The Waterbabies, it is how this idea is portrayed. Initially, Tom wants to be just like his miserable master, as that is all that he knows. Through his transformation under water, be becomes a product of a better environment. Also in Wilde’s â€Å"The Ugly Duckling†, the duckling feels ugly and doesn’t fit in because of the environment around him. Although he is jus t different than the others, he is led to believe that he is a horrific creature. He truly believes that he is a monstrosity of a sight and this is only because of the influences in his immediate environment. It isn’t until he steps out of his negative surroundings that he finally realizes what he truly is. In the three novels, Black Beauty, The Jungle Books, and White Fang, the child figures portrayed are inevitably products of their environment. You can watch each character grow and change with each new experience and set of surroundings. You can see how just the slightest actions or just a few words shape the adult beings that each character becomes. What a better world we would live in if everyone realized that the actions and voices can forever change the life of another being, whether it be human or animal. ______________ is a professional essay writing service which can provide high school, college and university students with 100% original custom written essays, research papers, term papers, dissertations, courseworks, homeworks, book reviews, book reports, lab reports, projects, presentations and other assignments of top quality. More than 700 professional Ph.D. and Master’s academic writers. Feel free to order a custom written essay on White Fang from our professional essay writing service.

Sunday, October 20, 2019

Causes of Poverty in Mauritius

Causes of Poverty in Mauritius Over the past two decades, Mauritius has continuously experienced considerable improvements in both social and economic levels. Mauritius is ranked as an upper middle income country since 2003, with a GDP per capita of $4000. Substantial improvement in life expectancy and literacy, Mauritius has shifted from medium to a high human development country during same period. This is evidenced by the latest UN Human Development Indices: Mauritius is ranked 81 (182 countries) in 2007, with an HDI value of 0.804. Challenge Despite these considerable improvements, poverty does exist in Mauritius. Rapid modernization and industrialization has lead to income inequality in the population, leading to an increase in number of pockets of poverty. This is a common phenomenon experienced by most developing countries. Governments or organizations have to reconsider their policies to decrease the level of income inequality in order to eradicate the problem of poverty. Meeting the challenge In Mauritiu s, government has implemented several social welfare programmes to bridge the gap between poor and non-poor. This include the distribution of social aid to needy people, subsidies on basic food item, ZEP programme in schools to enhance level of education, micro-financing to small and medium enterprises, female empowerment in labor market . In the 2008/09 National Budget, the Government provided Rs 395 million for the setting up of the of the Eradication of Absolute Poverty (EAP) Programme, an integrated development project which targets the households in the 229 pockets of poverty. In 2009, the Government has set up the National Empowerment Fund as an institutional framework to strengthen the role of various policy programmes such as the Empowerment Programme, EAP, Decentralised Cooperation Programme (DCP), etc. Despite the government policies, reforms and actions, poverty is still persistent in Mauritius. Poverty perceptions Poverty is a complex issue and multifaceted. This has alw ays been of concern for everybody. Many studies and policy programmes have been put forward to assess poverty situation in the country and also to target the poor. It is worth noting that the proportion of people living below $1.25 per day, international poverty line, is almost negligible in the country. In contrast, past studies have shown that there are people living in severe poverty. The Relative Development Index for administrative regions, Municipal Wards and Village Council Areas (Central Statistics Office, 2000) identified the least developed regions in the country. The Trust Fund of Social Integration for Vulnerable Groups (set up in 2001) identified 229 pockets of poverty. The qualitative study conducted by DCP pointed out that there were people struggling for basic food. As a matter concern poverty has even been linked to a particular ethnic group that is, poverty perceived as ‘malaise creole’. These perceptions of poverty are evidence that people show their concern and this concern has accentuated the need for good measurement. Objective of study The complexity and sensitivity of poverty has accentuated the interest of people in targeting the poor and assessing poverty. Debates, focus group discussions and studies regarding poverty alleviation are still going on. Researchers are looking for new measurement and approaches to assess poverty in the country. Policy makers are looking for high quality inputs to formulate targeted strategies and programmes.

Friday, October 18, 2019

Frontier Airline Assignment Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Frontier Airline - Assignment Example Nevertheless, the Airline did not survive the continuous losses it incurred and finally shut towards the end of 1986, and was declared bankrupt (Frontier Airline Annual Report, 2013). In 1994, the Airline was reborn under top management of Chief Executive Officer (CEO) David Siegel and President Barry Biffie. During its first attempt in the market, Frontier Airlines had 60 air planes of which 35 were Boeing 737-200 and the rest were Convair 580. Currently, the Airline operates a fleet of 18 Airbus A320s and 35 Airbus A319s. However, the Airline has a codeshare with Great Lakes Airline that have Embraer EMB -120 Brasilia and Beechcraft 1900 D. Apparently, its first encounter in the market was marked by an inception of 40 destinations that later grew to 69 destinations in two years and before it was shut down it had managed to attain about 170 destinations in the U.S and other parts of the world. After the rebirth, the Airlines has managed to capture over 75 destinations in the U.S., Costa Rica, Mexico, Jamaica and the Dominican Republic (Frontier Airline, 2014). Consequently, Frontier Airlines currently enjoys a service of more than 3,900 professional in aviation who attend to more than 350 daily flights in the Airlines. However, the previous operation period has around 5,100 employees who were mandated to attend to both daily and occasional flights. Since its inception, Frontier Airlines has branded itself as a low cost airline. Nevertheless, early this year the C.E.O David Siegel came up with a strategy ‘ultra-low cost’ where their flight fares were stripped down to an average price of an economic ticket and as a marketing campaign that is meant to retrain the public on how the Airline intends to continuously operate especially after its rebirth. During the unveil, Siegel confirmed that

History of technology Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

History of technology - Essay Example A small hand held device with more than thousand songs and videos that can be carried around anywhere in the pocket. An amazing piece of technology devised for all music lovers transcending age barriers. The portable media player has met with huge success in the market in the last 5 years since its launch in 2001. The product has sparked massive interest in the age group of 15-35 initiating a revolution in the music industry. The small palm sized device can store more than thousand songs, videos, and photographs along with movies and television shows that can be downloaded to watch in leisure. Besides these the device is also used to play games, store audio versions of books and free podcasts. The device has in built security options with 20hrs of battery life and 80GB of storage capacity (Levitas and Prete 3). The main brands of these technologies are Apple's I-Pod and Microsoft Zune. Apple comments this innovation as: "It's hard to say exactly which moment it was that we realized the iPod had taken over our entire civilization. But it might have been this one: The day we first heard, last summer, that baseball players were using their iPods to do their pregame video studies - as opposed to, say, their pregame Shakira video studies. What we have here, friends, is one of history's most amazing gizmos ever." [Jan 31, 2007] - Jayson Stark writes for ESPN The first company which sold portable multimedia players was Archos. The product appeared on the market in 2002 year, and since that time was improved by Apple and Microsoft. The data of portable multimedia players are stored at hard-drives, on flesh memory or microdirves. Consumers of almost all ages have shown preference to the portable multimedia players. The new era sees the consumers switching from the conventional CDs to digital music. The product awareness campaigns have registered in the consumer minds when they make the purchase decision. Consumers are not at all hesitant in paying the price for the ipod since they trust the brand. But not all consumers feel the same way - a segment of consumers will also refrain from making the purchase of the portable multimedia players. The reason being they do not want to pay so much to own the portable multimedia player (Field 65). The uniqueness of this device is that it can play digital video and audio files. Many devices have FM tuners or a line out cable. The ipod allows the users to store and watch movies - but the size of the screen does not appeal the consumers much. These are some of the concerns raised by the consumers across. What we need to understand is that when the consumer is willing to pay such a high price for the portable multimedia player their expectations from the product and the company naturally is high too. They expect their portable multimedia player to be the best and long lasting with all the advanced features and more (McCrea 57). Moreover, the consumer is easily bored and is continually looking for more features. A portable multimedia player has so far been highly successful in registering their image in the minds of the masses. But what we need to assess further is our strategy to uphold this image for a long time in future. We need to focus on the following areas to strengthen our market segment: Portable multimedia

Authority and Sources in Christian Ethics Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 750 words

Authority and Sources in Christian Ethics - Essay Example This will act as an essential guide to many other lives. The life of discipleship is governed by aims of the overall salvation of many other lives. The scriptures state that it is essential for disciples to follow ethics to ensure that they have attracted others to join the faith (Scharen, p 12). The life of discipleship ensures that a Christian follows the dictates of the scriptures. The Bible is a true representation of the needs and wants of the scriptures. In many instances, a Christian is guided by the stipulations of the Bible. In relation to ethical situations, all the three authors insist that there is a deep salvation and relaxation that is brought by constant reference to the Bible. They have given a very good example of the persecution of the Jews by the Nazi’s during Hitler’s era. There were very many Christians from all faiths that were boxed into a corner. Whatever action that they took in helping the victims of the Holocaust determined their level and upr ightness as Christians. A Christian who is a selfless disciple of Christ will do anything to ensure that he or she can save a life. This is because this is exactly what Jesus would have done. So the true Christians in the above context were those that were willing to do anything to save their victims. This is despite the fact that they were prone to persecution if they were found out (Stassen, p 72). Faith is the ability to have a strong conviction in relation to any circumstance or situation. This is despite the fact that many at times it is very hard to have faith in something that we are yet to see. Any approach that is dictated by a Christian is governed by the ability for them to have the uttermost faith in everything around them. Their faith is the guide that ensures that they are pillars of very many others in society and all over the world. Christian ethics insists that it is important for a believer to have faith all the time. This is in many instances and situations. The d isciple is the source of solace for very many people that do not have the ability to believe (Scharen, p 32). In many issues that a human being experiences, it is very important for them to identify what they need to do to acquire faith. The ability to believe does not just occur naturally. It comes with the deep understanding that in all challenges that one goes through, Christ died for all. The scriptures all state that he knows what his creation can handle and what they cannot. This means that with the faith that a Christian has, whether in relation to the application of Christian ethics or not, God is the essential guide always. There are random verses in the Bible that show deep Christian faith and its abilities. In day to day life, we should have the faith to receive and impact salvation. This is just like blind man who called out the Lord’s name and received his sight. Christian ethics is determined by ones ability to stand firm in the things that he or she believes in . In many unethical situations, there is one who gains. As a result of this gain, others lose greatly. A true disciple stands his ground no matter the consequences of his or her actions. Jesus was tempted, he employed great faith and he overcame the challenges. If he had no strong preference to ethical practises, it would have been very easy for him and many others to fall into temptation (Stassen, p 89). The third connection in the

Thursday, October 17, 2019

Erickson's theory Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Erickson's theory - Essay Example However, the third hypothesis was relevant to the nature of the impact that parental involvement has on young children. The study was conducted with 25 families of children that were in kindergarten and first grade. Both parents worked outside the home and according to Culp et al. (2000) contributed to the fathers, "[...] taking a greater responsibility in their parent-child interactions during weekdays than single-earner family fathers" (p. 28). Based on this increased involvement by the fathers, Culp et al. (2000) confirmed their hypothesis when they concluded that greater father interaction was "associated with children's perceptions of self-competence and social acceptance" (p. 36). The Culp et al. (2000) study found that while increased father involvement elevated the child's sense of parental acceptance, it did not improve their cognitive or physical abilities (p. 36). Though Culp et al. (2000) found that more involvement by the male parent resulted in a perception by the father of better physical behavior, the study pointed out that this might only be the father's perception of the child's behavior (pp. 35-36). The increased time spent with the child, and the added responsibility of caring for them, may alter the father's perception but not the behavior of the child. Erikson's model would tell us that increased father involvement during stage 2 and

Answer below question 50 or more words Assignment

Answer below question 50 or more words - Assignment Example Almost all the agents of socialization have great impact on the political opinion of any person. At top of the list, family plays an important role in developing the basic mindset of any person. Usually people perceive anything in the same way as their family taught them. Therefore, we can say that the people may support any political party if all the family members are supporting them. After that, the role of colleagues and peers is also very important. In most of the situations, we have conversations with our colleagues and it is possible that at the end of the day we may think in a way as our friends was saying. At this point of time, we cannot ignore the role of unbiased media in developing the mindsets and perceptions of people. In my opinion, the identity proofs should be checked before the voting procedure just to make sure the validity of the elections. There can be variety of ways to check any persons’ identity. Many of the countries are following electronic devices to cast the votes against the candidates. These electronic devices are reliable and thus give valid results. Any country may have to face many of the problems after the elections therefore it is advisable to use any of the technique to clarify the election procedure. In today’s competitive and busy world, it is very important for an individual to have an association with different interest groups, i.e. political, social, economic, etc.†¦ because there is a famous saying â€Å"Unity is Strength†. Therefore, most of the individuals prefer to have a representation in a group, so that they can discuss and resolve their problems in an organized and united way. I have also joined an interest group known as SASE (Society for the Advancement of Socioeconomic) ( because I believe that social conditions and societal norms have a great impact over the economic progress of a country. This organization helps me to

Wednesday, October 16, 2019

Discussion Board Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 500 words

Discussion Board - Research Paper Example Southwest Airlines is one such organization that has focused on the Low Cost Producer Strategy (bags fly free!) in order to compete in the market. Southwest Airlines offers lower cost services to customers and is a low-cost-carrier. Southwest has almost never served a meal to passengers onboard and has cut on many of the other services that most airlines provide. Since the economic turmoil, as airlines started firing employees, Southwest Airlines fired none and rather cut on the salaries of its employees. This increased the employee loyalty towards the company and strengthened the customer base. This flexible nature has enabled Southwest Airlines to purchase the highest number of 737-700s (Bundgaard, Bejjani & Helmer, 2006) The use of information technology has never the less created the risks of security breaches. Online reservation requires passengers to provide credit/debit card details, that customer are hesitant to provide. However, Southwest has made sure that no fraud ever occurs and all reservations are secured. Apple Inc., a renowned American organization specializing in computers, believes in innovation and thus makes use of Differentiation Strategy as its competitive strategy. Apple has pioneered several inventions and come up with PDA’s, iMac, iBook, iTunes, iPod, iPad etc. taking the market by storm. Apple has continued to provide customers innovation when it comes to gadgets and has created some of the finest electronic products. The differentiation strategy creates monopoly and reduces the chances of substitutes taking over. Apple Inc. has hired this policy and thus is able to pass on the costs to customers, without losing customer loyalty. This strategy is viable since Apple has rare competitors who cannot replicate Apple’s market strategy and exploit their sales. Despite strict regulations, Apple has come under numerous security breaches where its data was hacked and

Answer below question 50 or more words Assignment

Answer below question 50 or more words - Assignment Example Almost all the agents of socialization have great impact on the political opinion of any person. At top of the list, family plays an important role in developing the basic mindset of any person. Usually people perceive anything in the same way as their family taught them. Therefore, we can say that the people may support any political party if all the family members are supporting them. After that, the role of colleagues and peers is also very important. In most of the situations, we have conversations with our colleagues and it is possible that at the end of the day we may think in a way as our friends was saying. At this point of time, we cannot ignore the role of unbiased media in developing the mindsets and perceptions of people. In my opinion, the identity proofs should be checked before the voting procedure just to make sure the validity of the elections. There can be variety of ways to check any persons’ identity. Many of the countries are following electronic devices to cast the votes against the candidates. These electronic devices are reliable and thus give valid results. Any country may have to face many of the problems after the elections therefore it is advisable to use any of the technique to clarify the election procedure. In today’s competitive and busy world, it is very important for an individual to have an association with different interest groups, i.e. political, social, economic, etc.†¦ because there is a famous saying â€Å"Unity is Strength†. Therefore, most of the individuals prefer to have a representation in a group, so that they can discuss and resolve their problems in an organized and united way. I have also joined an interest group known as SASE (Society for the Advancement of Socioeconomic) ( because I believe that social conditions and societal norms have a great impact over the economic progress of a country. This organization helps me to

Tuesday, October 15, 2019

Operations Management assignment Essay Example for Free

Operations Management assignment Essay Supply chain management is the coordination of the processes and functions within a business, adopted by most companies in the UK in the late 1990’s. It deals with the internal and external factors that, when dealt with correctly and systematically, can determine a businesses success or failure. A supply chain is the network of activities that delivers a finished product service to the customer. By definition, supply chain management (SCM) is â€Å"the management of the flows of materials from suppliers to customers in order to reduce overall cost and increase responsiveness to the customers† (Reid Sanders). SCM entails the co-ordination of the movement of good through the supply chain from suppliers to manufacturers to distributors to the final customer. The main aim of SCM is to maximise the efficiency of any given process being carried out by a company; by doing this it is allowing them to try to cut their costs and hopefully keep satisfying their customers’ needs, while at the same time maintaining their competitive position within their market. Supply chain management is seen as more of an â€Å"open system† in contrast to the traditional system used by the majority of companies just 20 years ago. The new â€Å"open system† allows room for change which is greatly needed with the current financial instability of the economy. SCM has evolved over the years and has moulded to suit the ever changing economy. First adopted by the Japanese, in the form of Geba Kai (A meeting of the minds), the now commonly found process is used by a vast amount of companies in the UK. Nowadays, SCM within a business is responsible for a product from when it’s in its raw state to when it’s a finished product, ready for consumption by customers. The chain management that Comfort Company PLC currently uses is a very traditional system, otherwise known as a â€Å"closed system†. This type of management system isolates itself from the other components in the supply chain and therefore only has communication flowing through the companies own system, this is a negative attribute as it prevents the company from getting important and influential information about the state of the other links in their supply chain. When the dynamics of change happened, it forced the breakthrough of a new approach, the â€Å"open system†. The â€Å"open system† made companies a lot more open to operational change and as a result of this it made several managers, whose companies used the closed, more traditional system, view the new approach as a loss of power; this consequently made a lot of companies resist against the change. The new and more flexible â€Å"open system† was adopted firstly by the Japanese in the form of â€Å"Geba Kai†, they were closely flowed by the British who quickly followed them in adopting it. There are still some nations that, even now, rigidly stick to their old ways and use the â€Å"closed system†, two examples of these nations are the Americans and the Germans. Along with the list of positives the company will gain by changing from a traditional chain system to a more formal supply chain management (SCM) system, there are also a few strategic reasons why a company should change to the newer system, reasons that will help them to stay on par with the other business’ within their industry and within the whole business sector. One of these reasons is globalisation. As stated in â€Å"Operations management: Along the supply chain†, Two thirds of today’s businesses operate globally through global markets, global operations, global financing, and global supply chains†. Globalisation means that British companies, such as Comfort Company PLC are going to have to be prepared to compete in markets that are foreign to them and also have foreign competition within their own domestic markets. Companies that adopt, or have already adopted, a formal supply chain management system will have an advantage upon those who havenâ€⠄¢t and will be able to benefit from globalisation. There are many benefits a company would gain from introducing a formal supply chain management system, all fulfilling the wish to supply the customer with good quality products that â€Å"Comfort Company plc† posses, while at the same time giving them an opportunity to maximise their customer satisfaction, manage their supply chain effectively and allow flexibility to their supply chain. By maximising customer satisfaction, â€Å"Comfort Company plc† could asses how well they are meeting their customers needs, while at the same receiving an indication of how well the business is doing in comparison with their competition; both in their market and foreign markets. Having a flexible supply chain would mean that the company would be able to react to change in demand quickly to ensure that they level the demand to their output, this would save them a lot of time, waste and resources if a freak change in demand was to happen. If â€Å"Comfort company plc† did not adopt the formal supply chain management system they would be at risk of loosing a lot of money if an unforeseeable change was to happen, this would give them a disadvantage upon the competition and would lower their competitive advantage. Effective management of a supply chain could open up opportunities for â€Å"Comfort Company plc† to improve many aspects of their production, and potentially save themselves a lot of money. By identifying the unnecessary waste along the supply chain, â€Å"Comfort Company plc† could make the process an easier, cheaper and quicker one for themselves and other links in their supply chain; this would make the chain more productive, co nsequently making the finished product â€Å"better value†. One of the main advantages of a formal supply chain management system, and an excellent attribute a company can have, is an advantage upon your competitors. Defined, competitive advantage is â€Å"an advantage over competition gained by offering consumers greater value, either by means of lower prices or by providing greater benefits and service that justifies higher prices†(, 2011). The type of competitive advantages a company such as â€Å"Comfort Company plc† would achieve from a formal SCM system are advantages such as lower costs and operational flexibility. As there are numerous ways of gaining a competitive advantage, the company in question needs to do some research into their market to see how it could be done, they could research the ways in which their successful competition operate and try to adopt some of their approaches. A good example of a company using its formal SCM system to achieve a good competitive advantage is Dell Computer Corporation. â€Å"Quick delivery of customised computers at prices 10-15 percent lower than the industry standard is Dell’s competitive advantage. A customised Dell computer can be en route to the customer within thirty-six hours. This quick response allows Dell to reduce its inventory level to approximately thirteen days of supply. Dell achieves this in part through its warehousing plan. Most of the components Dell uses are warehoused within fifteen minute travel time to an assembly point. Dell does not order components at its Austin, Texas, facility; instead, suppliers restock warehouses as needed, and Dell is only billed for items only after they are shipped. The result is better value for the customer† (Reid Sanders). There are a few ways â€Å"Comfort Company plc† can gain competitive advantage within their market, such as using tools like business to business (B2B) e-commerce, or adopting one of Dells results gaining approaches and making sure that there components and raw materials for making the products are located a short travel time away from the place of assembly. Being situated on the Crewe Gates industrial park, where many other businesses, some similar to â€Å"Comfort Company plc† no doubt, are situated, there’s sure to be some way that they could find a supplier closer. If this was to succeed they could create a good, strong relationship with the suppliers and build a barrier of trust and communication, this would be a perfect scenario to ensure the links in the supply chain are strong, as the supply chain is â€Å"only as weak and its weakest link† and vice versa. A business to business (B2B) e-commerce is when companies sell to other business, it is the largest segment of e-commerce. If â€Å"Comfort Company plc† were to use business to business (B2B) e-commerce, they could gain potential benefits such as: †¢Lower procurement administrative costs, †¢Better quality because if increased cooperation of between buyers and sellers, especially during the product design and development, †¢Low-cost access to global suppliers, †¢Lower inventory investment due to price transparency and reduced response times (R. Dan Reid, Nada R. Sanders) The reasons/advantages stated above for changing from a traditional chain system to a formal supply chain management system are in fact more than just small advantages â€Å"Comfort Company plc† could gain, but necessary changed that need to be made if they want to survive the current economical crisis and still have customers/revenue at the end of it. With globalisation growing and the need to satisfy the customers becoming more apparent and diverse, the formal supply chain management system is a necessary system that every business, no matter how small or large, should put into place. The formal SCM system will allow â€Å"Comfort Company plc† to integrate their information systems with their suppliers and customers in an effort to meet their goals and objective while still at the same time doing this in a cost-saving way. With every new system brought into a company, there is the risk of it creating a few problems within the company; this makes the need of a contingency plan much higher. There are a few risks that come along with implementing such a big change to a business so set in its ways like â€Å"Comfort Company plc†, a main one being the possible lack of cooperation from the workforce or managers. When change happens in a workplace the employees can feel threatened and scared and will sometimes rebel against the new change, this could be avoided if the company took a few simple procedures to ensure the workforce are happy with the new system. They should tell the workforce about the new operational plan and get their feedback on it, this will make them feel involved in the change and will hopefully make them feel less alienated. Also, they should sit them down and explain the needs of introducing a formal supply chain management system into the company, and the benefits it would gain by doing so, if they feel it would be benefiting the company, they should feel happier about the change going on. Furthermore, if both of the steps are carried out correctly, it could make them more motivated towards their job as they will feel involved in the company and will hopefully want it to succeed. Another risk of the formal supply chain management system is the potential loss of jobs within the company; this will be because some members of staff will not be needed as a go between for information between suppliers and so on. The redundancies in the company could possibly cause bad feeling between the workforce and the new system and could de-motivate them, possibly leading to a decrease in the effort put in by the workforce; this could potentially lead to a product being of a lower quality. Also, the possible redundancies made will be a negative factor for the economy as there will be a few more unemployed people in the country; this is one of the only major downfalls of the introduction of the formal SCM system. However, there may be members of staff who are close to retirement and could benefit from voluntary redundancy and the benefits that go with it. A negative of that would be that â€Å"Comfort Company plc† may loose some of their staff with the most experience and expertise, potentially making them train up current members of staff to the same quality as the members of staff who left. However, the operations management team at â€Å"Comfort Company plc† will have to put contingency plans in place that cover all of the possible risks, and ways to reduce the risks from happening. There are many needs of introducing a formal supply chain management system into â€Å"Comfort Company plc†, and many advantages it would gain by doing so. While there are also some risks involved, the advantages and needs outweigh them massively as they could potentially provide â€Å"Comfort Company plc† with a competitive advantage, while at the same time reducing their costs and use of resources. Like the traditional chain system currently adopted by â€Å"Comfort Company plc†, the new, more up to date formal supply chain management system will fulfil their wish to supply the customer with good quality products while at the same time saving them resources and money, making them more profitable. The introduction of a formal supply chain management (SCM) system is necessary and â€Å"Comfort Company plc† should definitely strongly consider it. References: †¢Operations Management: An integrated approach (2007) (3rd edition) R. Dan Reid, Nada R. Sanders. Pages 16, 98-105 †¢Operations Management: Along the supply chain (6h edition) Russell Taylor. Page 9. †¢ (2011) Competitive advantage (WWW) Available from:

Monday, October 14, 2019

Methods And Importance Of Note Making

Methods And Importance Of Note Making This book contains different note making methods which can be used during the academic period. Author has put forward five main note making methods as; Split-page format, Diagram/Pattern format, Mind map, Outline Format and Question and Prompt format aiming on FEST program. Author has discussed the importance, the advantages and disadvantages of each note making method. After having a main idea on each note making method author has experiment each method with FEST subjects. At the end author finalize that; Split page Format Communication Study Skills Diagram/Pattern Format Computer Technology Mind map Physics Outline Format Mathematics Question Prompt Format Ethics , as the most effective note making method for each subject. CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The Importance of Note-Making During FEST program we meet many modules. With regarding to its own behavior we have to follow learning techniques to remember all the important points. As we cannot hold them all in our mind, we will have to use a record to gather all the information. To record something we have to improve our listening skills. As we record something we will have to pay our attention for our work. That record can help us to recall and understand the lesion in a later time and saves our time. So it is very important to make effective notes. During lectures, lecturer presents more information than shows in slides. Sometimes they give useful tips for assignments and for exams. So it is very important to write down hints. When we are in a classroom or in a lecture hall, we must concentrate our mind on the lesion to grab all the information and to comprehend the lesion. That kind of a concentration is built by making notes. So Note-making is very important as it involves us in the learning process. And whenever we read something we have to write down important points as we cannot hold them on mind. Making notes allows us to reduce the information in to manageable size. When we are studying for exams a lot of material has to be covered. The key points should be extracted from lecture notes and text books. It is an aid to exam revision. Making notes helps to think and understand the subject. The history of Note-Making goes far about 1979. Tony Buzan was the person who invented the concept of Mind Mapping. With using images and patterns he developed the main idea up to a successful invention. So now it has become most popular among most of the academic students. Types of Note-Making Methods Note-Making mainly involves with selecting, analyzing, summarizing and organizing information. Although there were many Note-Making methods with different strategies, we only consider five methods that suits for FEST program in this research. 1.2.1. Split-page Format. ( A narrative Note-Making method) In Split-Page Format method the page should be divided in to two columns and in one column there will be standard notes and in the other, the summery. This method can be used to write down lecture notes. 1.2.2. Diagram/Pattern Format. (A visual Note-Making method) In Diagram/Pattern method the information is presented with using a diagram. The main topic and the related ideas should be linked together as it implies a complete meaning. This is a kind of visual learning technique. 1.2.3. Mind Map. (A visual Note-Making method) In this method the information and important points are presented through a map which contains images. With linking one another, the information can be elaborated according to our own creativity. 1.2.4. Outline Format. (A narrative Note-Making method) In this format the information is presented as an outline with using titles, sub titles that are numbered according a procedure. 1.2.5. Question and Prompt Format. (A narrative Note-Making method) The main points of a lesion can be highlighted across a series of questions and with relevant answers. When taking lecture notes it should be more accurate and consisted. With improving the habit to use SQ3R technique it allows us to take most important points on lectures. After reorganizing them it reveal the way to review and revise the note. A note-Making method is only one category that comes under study skills. But up to now we can see more methods that can follow to achieve improvement in study. So we can follow any of them to reach the target. With the technological development the Note-Making method has stepped in to computer /notebook. So now it has changed its name as Electronic Note-making method. Most of the students use word processors because it is easy to forward. Objectives and Scope of Study Acquire the skills to make effective notes using various methods. Modules: Communication Study Skills Computer technology Physics Mathematics Engineering Ethics Note Format: Split-Page format Diagram/Pattern format Mind map Outline format Question Prompt format Through the research I have investigated different Note-Making methods. Five main Note-Making methods have taken to be concerned. The investigation covers the advantages, disadvantages and the feasibility of each method. And each Note-Making method is experimented with FEST modules. Module have been chosen concerning on its behavior and the relevance with the method as below; Split-Page format : Communication and Study Skills 2 Diagram/Pattern Format : Computer Technology 3 Mind-map : Physics 4 Outline Format : Mathematics 5 Question and Prompt Format : Ethics Acquire the skills in technical writing. Understand the requirements for a dissertation. Identify the main sections of a dissertation. Achieve proficiency in using soft tools to aid technical writing. Present critical and argumentative views. Learn to write, abstract and draw conclusions. Overview of Study Chapter 1 : 1.1 Importance of Note-Making. 1.2 Types of Note-Making methods. 1.3 Objectives and Scope of Study. 1.4 Overview of Study. Chapter 2 : 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Implementation of Different Note Formats in Various Fest Subjects. 2.2.1 Split-Page Format. 2.2.2 Diagram/Pattern Format. 2.2.3 Mind-Map. 2.2.4 Outline Format. 2.2.5 Question and Prompt Format. 2.3 Discussions and Conclusions. Chapter 3 : 3.1 Study Contributions 3.2 Recommendations for Future Developments in Note-Making Methods. REFERENCES. CHAPTER 2 EFFECTIVE NOTE-MAKING METHODS FOR FEST PROGRAM 2.1 Introduction In the lectures we have to take a much struggle to catch all the important points and to understand with them. So it is very important to get prepared before the lectures with referring to past lectures and with the things to be taught. After deciding the Note method according to frame work we will be able to have a good Note which concludes all main points. When writing down the main points abbreviations, phrases and images can be helpful to manage the time. This chapter concludes five main Note-making methods and their adoption in FEST modules. When selecting the appropriate Note-Making method, the behavior of each subject had to be considered. Communication and Study Skills is based on both theoretical knowledge and practical knowledge. Methods like Split-Page, Outline and Question-Prompt can be used to make CSS notes. But Split-Page format becomes most suitable as it carries standard notes and summery. Computer technology holds theory as well as practical. In most theory parts it concludes title, sub titles definitions and examples. CT notes can be summarized with a unique pattern like a diagram. So Diagram Format is the most suitable method which complies with CT notes. If we talk about Physics, it is a combination of theory, practical and calculations. Mind map can be used to emphasize the formulas, definitions and the key ideas in an illustrative manner. As Mathematics carry formulas, definitions and calculations, Outline Format can be used to make notes on theories as well as calculations. Ethics is mainly based on theory. So through Question and Prompt Format all the notes can be factorized. We should have a sense to select the most suitable method in various occasions. 2.2 Implementation of Different Note Formats in Various Fest Subjects The information and data needed, When making notes we copy the main points on lectures as well as text books. And we will have to refer web sources, journals, reports and articles to gain extra knowledge. The questions that rise during lectures and our own ideas hold an importance. All the types of data should be presented through a simple note. The data collection strategy, When making a note we have to follow a data collection strategy. First of all we will have to make a specific objective and a clear definition on the data collection. Second thing is the data collecting mode. It can be quantitative or qualitative. In quantitative data collection strategy it is easy to read and transfer. But in qualitative data collection strategy it needs a long time to differentiate and find out. Otherwise the data mode can be evaluated after deciding it as simple, complex or difficult. The conditions applied in notes, Note-Making is not an easy task as it appears. It needs skills to result a better product. We should find materials that are not too difficult or complex. In this case well organized material can help to reduce time. We have a good note after selecting, analyzing, summarizing and organizing those materials. 2.2.1 Split-Page Format The easiest method to take down notes is Split-Page Format method. In this method the page should be divided in to two parts. The left side must have a width of 2.5 inches and the right side must have 6 inches. The right side is to note down the lecture notes and the important points. And the left is to write the key words and the summery of the notes. But in some books it is said that page should be divide in to three sections and in the left side it is for own comments and questions, the next part is for write down standard notes and the last part is for the summery. So we can use either way to make a good note. Advantages : This method is mainly composed to make lecture notes. And it produces a well organized note. When revising the note, the summery and highlighted points make it much easier. As we note down the questions that comes through the lesion, when recalling the lesion we can make much attention for those problems. Disadvantages : This kind of a note is not visually attracted. We will have to write down all the main points in the right side, so it takes much time. Feasibility : The main points, questions and summery is overviewed together. Speed reading techniques; Basic steps lead for an effective reading. SQ3R, SQ4R, SQ5R S Survey Q Question 5R Read, Recite, Reduce, Reflect, Review SPEED READING TECHNIQUES; SQ3R -1.a useful technology for absorbing written information. 2.It helps to create a good mental framework of a subject helps to set study goals. S Survey Q Question 3R Read, Recite, Review SQ4R method, S Survey Q Question 4R Read, Recite, Relate, Review SQ5R method, S Survey Q Question 5R Read , Respond, Record, Recite, Review FIGURE 2.1 : Examples of Communication and Study Skills Note using Split-Page Format. 2.2.2 Diagram/Pattern Format This method is more visual than the Split-Page format method. According to this method the information can be displayed through a pattern as diagram. The main topic is to be written at the top of the page. After that the related ideas should be added. The main topic and the sub topics/ideas should be connected each other as it arouses a complete sense. Advantages : Very easy to use and it doesnt take much time to draw diagrams. It is much attractive and therefore it makes very convenient when recalling. Through diagram format it is easy to remember the information. Disadvantages : When using Diagram format method we will have to limit the points. Therefore some key points can be neglected. The main idea is not viewable, only the important points are viewable. It is not easy to extent when information is lot. It is difficult to state complicated ideas through such a short format. Feasibility : Through this method the main idea can be presented as a flow of key points. Computer Network Definition Purpose (4) Network classification (6) Network archi Scale Wireless Tech Wired tech Connection method Network topology Terrestrial microwave Wireless Lan Blue Tooth Communication satellite Lan Wan Man Pan VPN CAN Active Working Client Server Peer to Peer Twisted Pair Coaxial Cable Fiber Optics Ethernet Wireless Lan GHn Bus Star Ring Mesh FIGURE 2.2 : Examples of Computer Technology Note using Diagram Format. 2.2.3 Mindmap Mind mapping method is bit difficult than other methods as it needs critical thinking. It is a composition of both images and words which present a lot of information through creativity. This method differs with other traditional methods as it is based on many skills such like, thinking planning, organizing and concerning. The topic/heading should be displayed at the middle of the page. The key ideas and the concepts are the next to be noted. The topics and sub topics can be highlighted with using many shapes. But all the concepts are to be added in a short format. Symbols and images can be added as the suitability. The concepts and their topics should be linked with free lines or arrows. To make it more attractive we can follow many colors as accordance. Advantages : It is easy to learn and apply and helps to reveal inner abilities as creativity. It provides a summery in a illustrative way. And it is easy to extend and add more points. Disadvantages : Only the person who have made it can understand, others cant. It is hard to express much complex concepts through Mind mapping. This method cannot be used to take instant notes. Feasibility : Make the subject more illustrative and comprehensive with its nature. 2.2.4 Outline Format When we are taking usual notes, the Outline Format is mostly used. Actually this method is based on organizing information with using a numbering system. It should be started with an initial topic written as no.1. After that the sub topics should be displayed as 1.1,1.2,1.3à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦The descriptions that are under those sub topics can be numbered as a),b),c)à ¢Ã¢â€š ¬Ã‚ ¦When we choose another topic it should be displayed as no.2.The relationship is shown by the order of the numbers.Otherwise the topics can be started at the margin and then the subtopics can be indented. Advantages : It is easy to learn and easy to use. This method can be used to take notes in the classroom. There will not be any information loss as it is well organized. It is very easy to understand as it is more descriptive. Disadvantages : It doesnt include a summery and the important ideas hidden among the details. So this is not a good method to recall before exams. 1.Transformation 1.1. Translation a. Vertical shift (y=f(x)+k), a.1 Vertical shift up; (k > 0) a.2 Vertical shift down;(k b. Horizontal shift (y= f(x-h)), b.1 Horizontal shift to the right; (h > 0) b.2 Horizontal shift to the left; (h 1.2. Compression and Stretch a. Vertical Stretch and Compression; (y = a.f(x)) a.1 Vertical Stretch;(a>1) a.2 Vertical Compression;(0 b. Horizontal Stretch and Compression; (y = f(a.x) b.1 Horizontal Stretch;(0 b.2 Horizontal Compression;(a>1) Feasibility : Most of the subjects are accordance with the Outline Format. FIGURE 2.4 : Examples of Mathematics Note using Outline Format. 2.2.5 Question and Prompt Format This method is more likely with Split-page method. But the difference being that, in QP method the questions that are based on study objectives will be displayed in the left side. And in the right side there should be the answer for that question. When we make questions we will have to go through all the lesions and to catch main points. This kind of a procedure makes the subject more understandable. Advantages : When we are going through text books or study guides, it is very important to note down the question arouses and their answers in order to use them near exams. The things that are more concern able are highlighted, so it is very important. Disadvantages : There is no summery, Only the important points are highlighted. Therefore whenever we want something in detail we will have to refer back to the text books. There are no any visual aids, so it doesnt make any pleasant feeling when seeing notes. Feasibility : This format has the ability to enhance the main points in a Question prompt way. Moral principles governing the rights and wrongs of human conduct. The principles that are accepted by individuals or social groups. Self-Interest, Tribalism, civil society It is the field of applied ethics which sets standards for engineering obligations to the public, their clients and the profession. Goal-moral autonomy, underlying skills and proficiencies. Moral principles, utilitarianism, justice model, human rights model Engineering Ethics; 1.What are ethics? 2.Why study ethics? 3.What are engineering ethics? 4.What are the Objectives of studying engineering ethics? 5.What are the ethical decision models? FIGURE 2.5 : Example of Engineering Ethics Notes using Question and Prompt Format. 2.3 Discussion and Conclusions Although there were many Note-making methods all of them are based on summarizing, organizing, analyzing and selecting important factors. We meet different modules, when we go through FEST program. With regarding to the feasibility of each Note-making method, we have to select most comparable format to use with subjects. When we are making ordinary notes in the class room, Outline Format is the most suitable one to use. When we are taking lecture notes Split-Page Format becomes most suitable as it consist of details as well as summery. Diagram/Pattern Format and Mind-mapping method can be considered as visual methods. Although Diagram Format method is easy to use and learn than the Mind-Mapping method, there occur problems in expanding data area in Diagram method. Mind-Mapping method is more famous among the present generation as it vast many abilities. As the first thing, it is to choose the most suitable Note-making method for the subject. It helps to remember more information that can be used in a later time. And also it makes much easier to recall the subject. CHAPTER 3 CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FUTURE DEVELOPMENT IN NOTE-MAKING METHODS 3.1 Study Contributions Through this research I was able to discover different Note-Making methods which suits for FEST modules. By then I could acquire the skills to make effective notes. Additionally I was introduced to technical writing criteria. It helped me to recognize the main qualities and behavior of a technical writing system. More overly this report made me aware on the requirements of a dissertation and its main sections. Most of the knowledge has to be caught from web sources. And that thing taught me, how I can contribute soft tools for such a research. Mainly I could accomplish most of the objectives as I was expected. 3.2 Recommendations for Future Development in Note-making Methods For future development in Note-Making, we can use more abbreviations and short hands for a better time management. We can improve this skill by involving with official shorthand language more time. As a memory aid mnemonics can be added to our notes. With highlighting, annotating and underlining key points, we will be able to notice most important factors. Dating and numbering pages will also be helpful when organizing the lesions. Making notes on our own words helps to comprehend the lesion. There should be a space for critical comments as well as blank spaces. So I think that sort of thing can make a change in Note-making methods in near future.